Development and Validation of Racial and
Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) within African American Families and Adolescents
Testing-Summer II, 2017
Dr. Derek Wilson
Prairie View A&M University
Racial and ethnic socialization are a fundamental piece of African American child development. Minimal studies have been conducted that thoroughly examine the meaning of racial and ethnic socialization and their ability to assist in racial personality development and African-American cultural characteristics and strengths. The reason for this investigation is to build up a thorough meaning of racial and ethnic socialization and to improve a measure known as the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS).
Development and Validation of
The Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families and Adolescents Manual
Introduction/ Background of Construct
Over time, various researchers have attempted to examine how the minority experience, cultural heritage and environmental influences have shaped parental socialization within African American families and how this has had an impact on the growth and psychological development of African American adolescents. Adolescence is a period set apart by significant physical, subjective, social, and enthusiastic changes that regularly result in both agony and development. For African American youths, these significant changes happen inside the setting of a more noteworthy attention to the part that their race plays in the way in which the more extensive society sees them. This article goes into detail regarding the development and validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS). The ARESS consists of ten items that focused on racial socialization while an additional twelve items focused on ethnic socialization. In 2007, Brown and Krishnakumar utilized Confirmatory Factor Analysis findings from 218 African-American adolescents from grades nine through twelve that were in support of the multidimensional nature of racial as well as ethnic socialization. In their newly updated scale they generated seventeen items that pertained to racial socialization and an additional twenty-five items that were used to assess ethnic socialization. In another measure of adolescent racial socialization, a 40-item scale addressed various key aspects that are related to racial socialization and ethnic socialization. These items included cultural coping with antagonism, cultural pride reinforcement, cultural appreciation of legacy, cultural endorsement of the mainstream values, and cultural alertness to discrimination (Stevenson, 2002). While comparing previous studies regarding racial and ethnic socialization in African-American adolescents, many researchers seemed to discuss the nonverbal socialization practices, but they failed to include items within their scales that went into detail regarding these nonverbal messages.
In this particular...