Diabetes Essay

701 words - 3 pages

Moreover, adhesion molecules as well as chemokine’s are leading factors in the disease. Another aspect of the experiment demonstrated that ICAM-1-deficient-db/db mice showed low CD4+ T cell in comparison to the db/db mice. This evidence illuminates that the interaction between naïve and effector T cells, which express LFA-1 and the expression of ICAM-1 are found on the renal epithelial, endothelial, and meningeal cells, and contribute in the migration of T cell into the kidneys. As an outcome of renal injury due to DN, the immune mediated damage is amplified by the chemotactic cytokines and recruit inflammatory cells in the kidneys. Thus, in such patients the only solution is to up regulate chemokine through the monocyte-chemo attractant proteins-1 (MCP-1). Furthermore, due to high concentration of sCD28 and lower concentration of sCTLA-4 inflammation is further progressed in DN patients. Another observation made about patients with DN was that in such patients renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RRAS) was activated and malfunction of the endothelial was observed. This was mainly caused by the leukocyte and cytokine which generated pro inflammatory and proliferative effects. Thus, from this analysis, another observation made is that the metabolic and hemodynamic factors contributing to DN may be due to the triggering of the immune-mediated inflammatory responses and cytokine production. Lastly, the accumulation of leukocytes may be the outcome of lesions from high glucose or glomerulus hyper fusion. Thus, it is has been observed that leukocytes may be a cause or an effect of DN (Navarro-Gonzalez & Mora-Fernandez, 2008) and (Wu, Stywu, Lu & Lin, 2011).
Moving further, the experiment also validated the mechanism by which T-cell-mediated renal damage involves the interaction of the T cells with macrophages. The interaction of T cells and macrophages regulate inflammation and renal injury. T-cells bare the tendency to directly cause injury through the cytotoxic effect. The pro inflammatory cytokines secrete T cells which further hold the tendency to activate macrophages. Once the macrophages are stimulated and activated they release factors that directly contribute to renal injury. Some of these secretions include nitric oxide, reactive...

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