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Diabetes: All About The Desease, Its Causes, Effects, Treatments, And Possible Future Treatments.

2796 words - 11 pages

DiabetesMugs BlankMay 22, 2001Biology4th Quarter ReportDiabetes, a life long disease for which there is not yet a cure, is caused by reduced production of insulin, or by decreased ability to use insulin. Insulin, the hormone produced by the beta cells in the pancreas, allows blood sugar (glucose) cells to be able to use blood sugar. This hormone is necessary for glucose to go from the blood to the inside of the body cells. With inadequate insulin, glucose builds up in the bloodstream instead of going into the cells. The body is unable to use glucose for energy despite the high levels of glucose in the bloodstream. This causes the excessive thirst, urination, and hunger, which are the most common symptoms of diabetes. The excess sugar remains in the blood and is then removed by the kidneys. This disease occurs in several forms, but the most common are Type I Diabetes or Juvenile Onset Diabetes or Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), Type II or Non Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM), and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.In Type I Diabetes, the body is unable to store and use glucose as an energy source effectively. The pancreas secretes a hormone called insulin, as mentioned above, that helps lower blood sugar and aids in the passage of glucose out of the blood cells into body cells. Also with Type I Diabetes, the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, and within five to ten years after diagnosis, insulin-producing cells of the pancreas are completely destroyed causing absolute insulin deficiency. This type may occur in both sexes, but mainly manifests itself in children, teens, or young adults. This form can occur at any age, but usually happens before the age of thirty, and in lean people. Fifty percent of all people with Type I diabetes are under the age of 20. Insulin-dependent diabetes accounts for 3% of all new cases of diabetes each year. One new case per 7,000 children a year arises, and the incidence decreases after the age of twenty years. (Baker 1932-34) The exact cause of this type is unknown, however, genetics is known to play a strong role. Viruses that have injured the pancreas could make one who is already prone to the disease of diabetes, more susceptible to getting it. The virus does this by destroying insulin-making cells in the body's immune system and this may play causative role. Some risk factors for Type I include autoimmune disease, viral infections, and a family history of diabetes since the disease is hereditary. The symptoms are usually more severe with this type of diabetes, and they develop rapidly. These indications include: increased thirst, increased urination, weight loss in spite of increased appetite, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and absent menstruation. At diagnosis, immediate goals are to stabilize the metabolism and eliminate the symptoms of high blood-glucose, because of the sudden onset of symptoms treatment for the newly diagnosed will include hospitalization to stabilize the high blood-glucose...

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