1. Discuss the pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus.
Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic condition in which the body has the inability to produce
insulin or react normally to insulin. The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is extremely
complex, as diabetes mellitus is characterized by different types but share common
symptoms and complications. Diabetes mellitus is classified in two types: Type 1 and
type 2 diabetes. Although the disease is "characterized by different etiologies" (Cohen,
2009, pg. 268), the outcome for both types is hyperglycemia. The pathophysicology of
Diabetes mellitus is related to the hormone insulin, which is secreted by the beta cells of
the pancreas. Insulin's job is maintaining glucose level in the blood, allowing the body
cells to use glucose as the main source of energy. However, for a diabetic, the insulin is
not metabolized correctly, leading the body cells and tissues to not make use of glucose
from the blood. And, as a result, causing high levels of blood glucose, or hyperglycemia.
Severe complications can occur from elevated glucose level in the bloodstream such as
eye disorders, kidney damage, or cardiovascular disease.
2.Compare and Contrast the possible causes of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.
As stated earlier, Diabetes Mellitus is classified in 2 toes. Type 1 and Type 2
diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile or insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus
(IDDM) is a chronic condition in which the body's immune system destroys beta cells in
the pancreas. Beta cells is responsible for the normal production of insulin. But when beta
cells are being attacked, no insulin is being produced, causing the glucose to remain
in the blood. People with type 1 diabetes for life. Type 1 diabetes is generally diagnosed
in children, teenagers, or young adults. Although the cause of this disease is unknown,
there is a viral or environmental expose (to virus, toxins, or stress) that triggers in
genetically susceptible people that causes an autoimmune reaction.
Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent Diabetes Mellitus, is the
most common form of Diabetes. Unlike people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, people with
type 2 Diabetes Mellitus produce insulin. However, the pancreas does not produce
enough insulin, hindering the body to use the insulin adequately. The body is resistant to
the effects of insulin. This is called insulin resistance. In insulin resistance, the body's
cells have a diminished ability to respond to the action of the insulin hormone. As a
result, blood sugar does not get into cells to be stored for energy. When sugar can not
enter cells, there is a build up of high levels of sugar in the blood, causing hyperglycemia.
Elevated levels of blood sugar often triggers the pancreas to produce more insulin, but not
enough to keep up with the body's demand, causing a...