Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 In Children
Diabetes is not a single disease it is a multifactorial group of syndromes all characterized by an increase in the level of blood glucose that occurs due to lack of presence of insulin. Mainly, the less release of insulin leads to excess deposition of glycogen which is a peptide hormone synthesized by the pancreas and plays a role in raising the level of glucose in blood. (Mycek, 2007).
Diabetes is usually divided into two types, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus also known as type 1 diabetes mellitus and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus also known as type 2 diabetes mellitus or Adult onset diabetes. (Boylan, 2007)
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes accounting 85-90% of all people with diabetes. It is a condition in which the body fails to produce cells that are responsible for producing insulin leading to a condition known as insulin resistance. (Hopkins, 2010).
Insulin is a hormone which is produced by the pancreas in our body and is mainly responsible for regulating the conversion of sugar into energy as the body fails to metabolize glucose in a proper way. Due to insulin resistance or failure of body cells to use insulin, glucose deposits in the blood instead of going into cells which mostly leads to many complications. (Mycek, 2007).
It is indicated that type 2 diabetes occurs due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors .Some of the symptoms of diabetes mellitus 2 include increased feeling of thirst and frequent urination, the urge to eat more, darkened patches of skin, and delayed healing of wounds and skin scratches, blurred vision accompanied by fatigue and an observable loss in weight (Hans, 2007).
INCIDENCE RATE OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 AMONG CHILDREN.
Once there had been a time that not much children suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus but over some last decades it has been observed that not only the adults many children also have diabetes mellitus type 2 .According to various studies it has been shown that there has been a 10 to 30 fold increase in American children that suffer from type 2 diabetes mellitus.Numerous studies also indicate that prvalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among children will increase upto 50 percent .
The development of type 2 diabetes is closely related to obesity; about 95 per cent of children with type 2 diabetes are overweight at diagnosis. Given that the proportion of Canadian children who are overweight has tripled in the last 30 years, it is not surprising that incidence of type 2 diabetes among youth is rising.
RISK FACTOR OF DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 2 AMONG CHILDREN.
Some of the major risk factors found in children having diabetes mellitus type 2 include following factors:
Obesity: Various studies have shown that about half of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus did not have any symptoms of diabetes and it was screened only because of their health issues occuring due to obesity.