Diagnosis Of Pad And Cad In India

741 words - 3 pages

: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), being a manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis, carries a high risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Secondary medical prevention therapies of same magnitude as that for coronary artery disease (CAD) are recommended for PAD patients also. Available evidence indicates that this condition commonly remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. There is lack of any report about management of these patients in India.
Objective: To characterize the atherosclerotic risk factor profile and pattern of drug prescription for patients of PAD at a tertiary care teaching hospital and to compare this management with standard guidelines.
Material and methods: Data were collected from prescriptions of patients attending CTVS OPD with diagnosis of atherosclerotic PAD from July 2012 to Jun 2013.
Results: One hundred twenty prescriptions were analysed. The mean age (± SD) of patients was 53 ± 7.18 years and 23.3% were females. History of smoking, either past or present, was present in 91.6% patients. History of ischemic heart disease was present in 25% while 26.7% patients were diabetic. Mean number of cardiovascular risk factors was 2.6. The percentage of eligible patients who were receiving a particular drug was 100 % for aspirin and statins, 48.3% for ACE inhibitors, 46.7% for beta blockers and 66.7% for cilostazol.
Conclusion: The vascular surgeons of this centre are using antiplatelet agents and statins adequately for PAD. The prescription of ACE inhibitors, beta blockers and cilostazol is low. Exercise therapy and smoking cessation need more attention.

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common disorder which affects large populations of adults worldwide. It most commonly affects arteries of the lower limb and patients mostly present with intermittent claudication. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of PAD. The prevalence of PAD differs depending upon diagnostic criteria as well as age and risk factors profile of the study population and may range from 3-12%.[1] Prevalence increases further with advancing age and may reach 15-20% in persons >65 years.[2, 3] Recently, it was estimated that 54.8 million people were living with PAD in southeast Asia in 2010 (out of 202 million globally).[4]
Due to the common underlying pathologic process (i.e. atherosclerosis), PAD is commonly coexistent with coronary artery disease (CAD) &/or cerebrovascular disease (CVD), which may be diagnosed or undiagnosed. PAD is said to...

Find Another Essay On Diagnosis of PAD and CAD in India

Recent Improvements in diagnosis and Treatment of Digestive Infections

1892 words - 8 pages immunochromatography (45, 46, 64). Serologic tests regarding to H.pylori infection diagnosis, are designed for detecting specific antibodies such as anti- H.pylori IgG antibodies or anti- CagA and anti- VacA antibodies. In adults, the preferable sample is serum, while in children is saliva or urine. Serologic diagnostic tools are cheap with high limitations. However, the serologic tests are common and accessible in a wide range. Depending on the type of

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium Essay

688 words - 3 pages Symptoms and Diagnosis of Plasmodium Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite and transported by the Anopheles mosquito. Fever is the most common symptom of malaria. Other symptoms include arthralgia and vomiting. The most common diagnosis process for this disease is looking at the patient’s blood under a microscope. If microscopy is not available, antigen detection tests can be used. In a year, there can be as many as five

Diagnosis and Treatment of Schizophrenia

1509 words - 7 pages also it is possible to reduce the chances of severe relapse by recognising the symptoms, taking the medication and talking about the condition to others. On this assignment will evaluate the diagnosis and treatment for schizophrenia. Also discuss the symptoms in a positive and negative way along with the process of diagnosis. Moreover will state the diagnostic principles and impact access. Finally resolve the discussion of treatment and evaluate

The Microcredit Foundation of India and Poverty in India

1131 words - 5 pages The Microcredit Foundation of India is a non- profit organization, and effective tool for alleviating poverty. The Microcredit Foundation has its base located in southern rural India. Microcredit works with just about everyone who needs their help; however their focus is women. Microcredit presents the women of rural communities with the opportunity to start a business. The services of micro credit are dedicated to creating a better stable

Does the Lack of Exercise and Healthy Eating Habits Contribute to PAD?

1636 words - 7 pages Artery Disease (PAD) is a secondary result of atherosclerosis and it can develop in any of your arteries. When atherosclerosis affects your arms and legs, it is called Peripheral Artery Disease. Atherosclerosis is when the arteries become clogged with clumps of fat, cholesterol and other material called atherosclerotic plaques which causes the arteries to become hard and narrow. These plaques can make arteries so narrow that less blood flows

Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Counseling

1229 words - 5 pages Diagnosis and Treatment Planning in Counseling Who published the DSM-VI? American Psychiatric Association. What is recorded on Axis III? General medical conditions Anorexia Nervosa -refusal to maintain body weight, body weight less than 85% of the expected weight -intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight -disturbance in the way in which one’s body weight or shape is experienced -in postmenarcheal

Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults and Diagnosis in Adolescent Children

1039 words - 4 pages the past adolescent children were rarely diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Diagnosing bipolar disorder in children is a very confusing and complex process. It is thought that the onset of puberty is a trigger to bipolar disorder. Since they are still young they might use illegal drugs to control their mood swings instead of getting the appropriate help. It is hard to diagnosis this because some children experience many

Diagnosis and Management of Diabetic Coma

1741 words - 7 pages of the pituitary hormone Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH / vasopressin) which regulates water reabsorption in the kidneys. (Martin (2002)) Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has symptoms of polyuria, wasting and glycosuria (mellitus means 'sweet urine') as well as the following tests to give a laboratory diagnosis of DM: Venous plasma glucose >11.1 mmol / L or Fasting venous plasma glucose > 7.0 mmol / L or Plasma venous glucose concentration > 11.1

Diagnosis and Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorders

1295 words - 5 pages drastic changes to the newest edition of the DSM (Aldhous). This volume would get rid of four existing disorders altogether, and diagnosis of the remaining would be changed (Aldhous). Patients would be scored in two personality areas, self and interpersonal (Aldhous). If they scored poorly, they would then be tested for the five major “pathological personality traits,” two of which are antagonism and impulsivity, and, dependent on the degree of

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner Syndrome

646 words - 3 pages Turner’s syndrome (TS) also known as Ullrich- Turner syndrome, is a genetic chromosomal disorder that affects roughly about 1 in 2,000 live born female infants. This disorder is caused by the absence genetic material from one of the sex chromosomes during fetal development, other developmental problems occurs after birth. Sex chromosomes are: X and Y, which are responsible for developing either (XY) male or (XX) female. A male fetus inherits the

Psychiatric Evaluation and Diagnosis of Virginia Woolf

1015 words - 4 pages today. Bipolar II entails having recurrent major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes. Means that most of the time the person will be depressed and not as likely to have manic episode even though they tend to happen. When manic episodes happen with depressive disorders, more often or stronger, then it is a bipolar I diagnosis. In bipolar II the symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other

Similar Essays

The Use Of Cad/Cam In Dentistry

2871 words - 12 pages CAD/CAM is an abbreviation for computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing and involves the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis or optimism of a design. Its primary purpose is to create a faster production process as well as improve the quality of design. CAD/CAM is currently employed in many fields such as shipbuilding, aerospace, architecture, automotive and prosthetics (including maxillofacial

The Balance Of Bayments And Cad

835 words - 3 pages 4. Analyze the relationship between Australia's persistent CAD and high level of net foreign liabilities. In your answer discuss the main components of Australia's CAD and the factors affecting the size of the current account deficit over time (20 Marks)The current account shows all the transactions involved from money being received (income) and money being spent (expenditure) for exports and imports of goods, services, incomes and transfers

Cad In The Design Office And The Process Of Concurrent Design Engineering

1020 words - 4 pages Computer aided design (CAD) is used in design offices around the world because speed and efficiency is extremely valuable. The idea of Concurrent Design Engineering is a relatively new concept that has improved the speed that designers produce a product. Concurrent Design Engineering is a way to integrate all the processes in design back to a three-dimensional geometric data base or a CAD model. All the steps in designing a product have an

Diagnosis Of Bipolar Disorder In Children And Adolescents

3006 words - 12 pages electroencephalograms (EEGs) and MRI-scan studies of the brain can uncover dissimilarities amid bipolar disorder and associated behavioral syndromes. According to Leibenluft et al., there is a lot of disagreement regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder in children. This is mainly since the boundaries of bipolar disorder in children are not clear and many clinicians state that it is invalid and inaccurate to diagnose children along the scale of adult