Philo first begins his argument by stating that if God is truly dominant than he can control everything. Afterwards he continues on to state that if God was willing to avert evil but not able to than he was inept. If he is able to avert it but not willing to, he is malicious. With that being said, Philo concluded that if God truly believed in the well being of man-kind, than there would be no evil in this world.
Demea responds by stating that we are only a speck in the whole universe limited to only what we can see. What seems evil to us now may not be evil for we cannot see how everything will end. Once we look at everything as a whole, we must make the connections and understand that with God in charge, everything will work out for the best. We cannot say that God is evil when we are only looking at the world from our point of view for we cannot see the ultimate goal which God seems to have in mind. After analyzing what Demea states, one finds that he is unknowingly on the same page as Philo.
Cleanthes retorts by saying that his suppositions should never be acknowledged. He questions how any hypothesis can be proven if there is no way to tell if it is true. If one considers the likelihood of what Demea stated to be true, then we must be able to prove that it can be reality. He explains that the only way to defend divine benevolence is to oppose the evils that are sent upon us humans. Demea attempts to prove that good occurs more than the bad but we tend to focus and put emphasis on the evil more.
Philo comes back saying if he allows what Cleanthes said to be true with their being less bad than good than Cleanthes must also admit that the evils that humans suffer through is still forevermore worse than the good. It is much harder for humans to receive pleasure rather know copious amounts of pain and grief. The effects that happiness leaves on one is nothing compared to the wear and tear that pain can hold. This, in turn, cannot be proven which disproves Cleanthes argument. Philo still believes that if God was as righteous as he seems to be than he wouldn’t allow any of the evil in the world. Since evil is so prevalent, God is still malicious. Philo goes on to state that it is not possible to estimate how much pain, anguish, happiness, excitement, etc that a person has gone through to prove that Cleanthes argument was based on nothing. Even than Philo continues on saying...