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Diet And Physical Activity In American Indian Childre

2331 words - 9 pages

INTRODUCTION
The goal is to suggest a modified intervention for the “Physical education component” of the Pathways intervention program; the basis of the modification will be the Social Ecological Model. This paper will be addressing the Physical activity Self-efficacy, physical activity participation and the curriculum that was offered for this component of the Pathways intervention Program. It will be addressed systematically by using the 6 factors of the Social Ecological Model for the promotion of physical activity.
BACKROUND
Compared with other ethnic groups in the United States, American Indian youth are said to be affected unevenly by the epidemic of obesity (Styne, 1996; Stevens et al., 2003). Before the age of 10, it is recorded that 40% to 50% of American Indian children of many communities are classified as either overweight or obese by modern definitions in contrast to data from a century ago in which Caucasian and Lakota children were equivalent in weight and body mass index (Styne, 1996). Numerous etiologies must be addressed to build programs to decrease the prevalence of childhood obesity in the American Indian community and thus the importance of the Pathways Intervention program on psychosocial variables related to diet and physical activity by Stevens et al. In Stevens et al., 2003 study and intervention, the authors confirm that they use the Social Learning theory* as the overall theoretical framework for the Pathways intervention program. The intervention promoted a healthful lifestyle by influencing Personal, behavioral and environmental interacting factors (Stevens et al., 2003). They also mention that they combined constructs from the theory mentioned above and cultural concepts. The cultural concept included American Indian customs and practices (Stevens et al., 2003). The program thus far covers a broad list of interacting factors. However as Daniel Stokols mentioned in his 1996 article, Health Promotion programs often lack a clearly specified foundation or are based on a narrowly conceived conceptual models (Stokols, 1996). The Pathways Intervention program slightly follows the latter, although a well-designed program and broadly conceptual model, it was ineffective at some levels. In that, I believe a different model would have worked much more effectively for specific constructs or components. Either the Social Ecological Model (Bronfenbrenner) or Social Cognitive Theory*** (Bandura) per se. For instance, even though the psychosocial variables related to diet and physical activity were affected tremendously by the pathway intervention program, and produced positive changes; they also realized that the intervention did not change the primary outcome of percentage body fat (Stevens et al., 2003). They speculated that it was possible that they may not be measuring the right constructs or the changes that were detected were of insufficient size to impact these outcomes (Stevens et al., 2003). However, the authors...

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