The World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition of health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples states that “Indigenous individuals have an equal right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. States shall take the necessary steps with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of this right”, thus affirming the basic human right to life and health that is guaranteed under international human rights law. It also goes on to state, “Indigenous peoples have the right to promote, develop and maintain their institutional structures and their distinctive customs, spirituality, traditions, procedures, practices and, in the cases here they exist, juridical systems or customs, in accordance with international human rights standards”. This implies a greater obligation of states to uphold not only the indigenous individual’s right to health but also the collective right of indigenous peoples to maintain and use their health systems and practices in pursuit of their right to health. This being stated the same can and/or should be applied to every individual around the world that health should be a culturally normal state of well being.
A diet as defined in the Encarta World English Dictionary as what a person or animal eats, controlled intake of food, or the regular intake of something. As this paper is concerned diet will be considered as what a person regular intakes as food.
A non-communicable disease, or NCD, is a medical condition or disease which is non-infectious. NCDs are diseases of long duration and generally slow progression. They include diabetes, cancer, heart disease, asthma, chronic kidney disease, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and more. While often referred to as "chronic diseases", NCDs are distinguished by their non-infectious cause unlike chronic diseases for example HIV/AIDS caused by transmissible infections. The similarities lie in that they also require chronic care management.
In the past many NCDs were associated with economic development and so-called "diseases of the rich". However, today an estimated 80% of the four main types of NCDs - cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, occur in low and middle-income countries. The prevention and control of NCDs is becoming increasingly important on the global health agenda.
NCDs are the leading killer today and are on the increase worldwide, confirmed by the first World Health Organization Global status report on NCDs launched first quarter 2011. The records state in 2008, 36.1 million people died from conditions such as heart disease, strokes, chronic lung diseases, cancers, and diabetes. Nearly 80% of these deaths occurred in low and middle-income countries with some of the highest total death in countries such as Afghanistan,...