Many black authors and leaders of the sixties shared similar feelings
towards the white run American society in which they lived. Malcolm X,
James Baldwin, Martin Luther King, and Stokely Carmichael all blamed the
whites for the racism which existed. However, they agreed that it was up
to the black society to end this problem. Using the black society, each of
the authors had their own idea of how racism could be stopped.
Unfortunately, for some, such as Malcolm X, this involved the use of
violence, while others, such as King, favored the non-violent approach.
This paper will focus, for the most part, on Malcolm X and King because
they are both strong representations of two different approaches to a
common goal. Perhaps their different approaches of violence and
nonviolence stem from their original opinions of how capable the whites are
of being "good".
Not all of the whites involved in the problem of racism supported it.
Some were actually trying to help fight for the blacks. Unfortunately, it
took Malcolm X a long time to figure that out. Malcolm's paper, "The
Ballot or the Bullet," makes that clear. In his paper, he is constantly
criticizing whites as a whole. He does not consider, even for a moment,
that a white could actually support equality for all men. "Usually, it's
the white man who grins at you the most, and pats you on the back, and is
supposed to be your friend. He may be friendly, but he's not your friend"
However, in a later work of his, "1965," one can see that Malcolm was
learning to accept whites as possible allies.
I tried in every speech I made to clarify my new position
regarding white people - 'I don't speak against the sincere, well
meaning, good white people. I have learned that there are some.
I have learned that not all white people are racists' (367).
Yet, while Malcolm learned over a period of time that not all whites
are evil, King entered the scene already fully aware that "good" whites
existed. In fact, where Malcolm underestimated the goodness in whites,
King seems to have overestimated it. He talks about his overestimating of
goodness in "Letter from Birmingham Jail." "I guess I should have realized
that few members of a race that has oppressed another race can
understand...the deep groans and passionate yearnings of those that have
been oppressed" (244). Yet, even after he found that he did not receive as
much white support as he had hoped for, King never lost faith in the white
Altogether, these views of white society as expressed by Malcolm and
King are reflected in their methods of fighting racism. Malcolm, who
supported the use of violence to achieve equality, most likely reached the
conclusion that this was the only way to fight the whites based on his
original view of them as heartless and uncaring. One place in Malcolm's
"Ballot or Bullet," where his categorizing of whites with violence and
cruelty can be...