This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Differences In Expression Of Politeness In Making Requests In English And In Chinese Language

2270 words - 9 pages

Politeness is known as a courteous manner that displays respects, show deference in society where people live and communicate together (OED online). Furthermore, according to Brown and Levinson (19780, politeness theory is the speaker’s expressions use toward receiver in soft manner of Face Threaten Acts (FTAs) to saving face of addressees. There are four main strategies in politeness theory as: bald-on record, positive politeness, negative politeness and off record. Bald- on record, a type is commonly with people known each other very well and very comfortable in their environment, is reduce the impact of FTAs. Off record is removing the speakers from any imposition whatsoever (Zhan, 1992). “Positive politeness is redress directed to addressee’s positive face” (Brown and Levinson, 1978, p. 101), while negative politeness is making a request less intrude into a person’s private.
Alternatively, request is a type of speech of act where the speaker ask or demand from the hearer to perform an act which is for the benefit of the speaker. A request has two parts: head act and modifiers (Al-Marrani and Sazalie, 2010). Head act is the main utterance which conveys a complete request and can stand by itself without any modifiers for express demand. The head act is follow by modifiers that moderate or exaggerate the impact of the request on the addressee (Reiter, 2000). For example, “Could I borrow your dictionary, please?” where “Could I borrow your dictionary” is head act and “please” is modifier.
So, every culture, every language has different ways to making requests in politeness. Therefore, the scope in this research is compared the differences expression of politeness requesting in two languages: English and Chinese. Following to House and Kasper (1981), their research claimed that speakers prefer to choose negative politeness strategies than positive politeness because when the relative face threat is high because negative politeness strategies are easily compensation than positive politeness strategies. To evaluate the difference of politeness in making request in two languages English and Chinese, the research will analyse three difference situations in classroom, at restaurant and at home.
In English grammar, in order to make a polite request, people usually use the modal verbs like can, could, will, would to allow the speaker to ask their need by asking for or giving permission, and so on. The formation of making a polite request is: (Leech, Cruickhank, Ivanic, 2001)
Modal Verb (Could/ Can/ Will/ Would) + Subject + Base Verb +…. ?
For example, Can you give a book?
So, in this sentence, “can” is a modal verb, “you” is subject and “give” is base verb.
In Chinese grammar as like as English grammar, speakers use optatives verbs (e.g. 能,可以,要)to express wishes, making a request, and have permissions. Follow to the grammar rule, the optatives verb put before the main verb and add”吗” – question particle at the end of the sentence:...

Find Another Essay On Differences in Expression of Politeness in Making Requests in English and in Chinese Language

The Differences in Emotional Expression Between Genders

1583 words - 6 pages Combined research shows men and women vary little in experiencing emotion but contrast greatly in the expression of emotion. Psychologists have studied the reasons behind the differences through the years and there are still many unanswered questions but there are several well-accepted possible causes and combination of causes. Neuro science and the brain makeup is the first area of proven differences. Medical researchers have been aware for

Discuss how politeness forms in language interactions are used to create and reduce social distance in Australia today

1054 words - 4 pages a person's negative face, for example, and often involves making requests less imposing, such as saying "If you don't mind...", and using indirect language. Positive politeness, however, is used to establish a positive relationship between interlocutors and respecting a person's positive face. When using positive politeness, one is more likely to use direct speech acts, such as "Hand me that pencil, please". In Australian culture, positive

Uses Of Chinese In The English Classroom

6389 words - 26 pages Uses of Chinese in the English Classroom -------Introducing the "Functional-Translation" Method 中文在课堂中的使用 ----介绍"功能-翻译"教学法 Abstract The assumption that the "English-only", direct method can be applied equally well to any size and type of class and any level or content of language learning is simply false.The fundamental

Modality and the Expression of Future Time in English: 'Will', 'Would', 'Shall' & 'Should'

4745 words - 19 pages brotherRichard, who is four years old, would instantly put you right.(cf. Lowth Grammar of English)3.5 Dean Alford, the Archbishop of Canterbury, states in "The Queen's English"(1864): "I never knew an Englishman who misplaced 'shall' and 'will'. I hardlyever have known an Irishman or a Scotsman who did not misplacethem sometimes. We seem to proceed rather on instinct, than by anyfixed rules."In addition Alford talks about the relation between shall

On the Film Title Translation from English into Chinese from the Cultural Differences Aspect

4664 words - 19 pages regards language as one of its manifestation forms and exerts profound influence on language. To film titles, there is no exception. As part of language and the enlightening part of films that keeps up with times, film titles bear rich culture imprints. This paper analyses the cultural differences in the film titles and the common methods of English-Chinese translation.Key words: film titles, cultural differences, English-Chinese translationOn the

my experience in english language

607 words - 2 pages Mint VinojarProf. BryantENGL 1301.8100829 September 2014My Experience in English LanguageI am not a professional reader, nor am I a professional writer. As a matter of fact, I do not like writing at all especially in English, but then writing is a part of life. Since English is my second language, I always have a hard time writing and reading in English.However, I have had to learn English to survive in this big country. I was born in Thailand

My Experience in English Language

607 words - 2 pages Mint VinojarProf. BryantENGL 1301.8100829 September 2014My Experience in English LanguageI am not a professional reader, nor am I a professional writer. As a matter of fact, I do not like writing at all especially in English, but then writing is a part of life. Since English is my second language, I always have a hard time writing and reading in English.However, I have had to learn English to survive in this big country. I was born in Thailand

Language Intuition in English Language Teaching

1507 words - 6 pages 1. Introduction English language study requires learners mastering several parts including phonology, grammar, vocabulary etc. Among them, grammar studying plays an increasingly vital role in English language learning in secondary school. Generally, the traditional way of teaching involves a teacher-commanding class which teacher spent half class on the certain grammar points and using exercises to evaluate whether students fully master them

Gender Differences in the Japanese Language

1704 words - 7 pages speech (Ide, 1990). Men’s speech has deprecatory words of ore, omae, kisama, and others. There are no deprecatory words in women’s speech. This means men’s speech is less polite sounding making it more masculine. Another characteristic is the differences in sentence final particles. Some women’s speech feature final particles such as wa, kasira, and no as a softener to create an atmosphere of sharing or politeness (Ide, 1990). On the other hand

Language in the English Classroom

699 words - 3 pages Mrs. Scully read “The Crucible” from Arthur Miller with her English 3 students. While this play is supposed to be an allegory of the communist witch-hunt that existed in the 1950s era, it is still relevant in showing where intolerance and lies can lead. The teacher gave the students a study guide at the beginning of class and a newspaper like flyer, which included important background facts in order to understand the play. Some students in the

Creative Expression in Hunduism

1365 words - 6 pages Creative expression in Hinduism is often incorporated through rituals and daily tasks. Hindu women have the opportunity to express themselves creatively through the daily creation of kolams, also known as Rangoli. Kolams are intricate drawings that serve as a proclamation to the world of various meanings, and also a unique form of communication, dependent on their design. These kolams can express many meanings such as announcing that their home

Similar Essays

English Language Competency, Differences In Assessment Cultures And Plagiarism

1599 words - 6 pages Topic: Lack of competency English language is often blamed for the many challenges that overseas students face in their university study. However, differences in assessment cultures may be of equal if not greater importance in explaining these challenges. Discuss with particular reference to the issue of plagiarism.What is plagiarism? According to Handa & Power (2005), Plagiarism is defined as "…borrowing the words and ideas of others

The Impact Of Evolution And Culture On English Language Differences In The Genders

1744 words - 7 pages impacted society’s view of men and women’s roles and their language. Culture has stereotyped the roles of men and women. “One of the major differences has been found in the area of linguistic politeness” because “women are considered to be more polite than men” (Marco). A few more differences perceived by culture are that “women talk more than men, that women ‘gossip’, that men swear more than women”(Coates 107). From an evolutionary human history

The Differences And Similarities Of Color Words Between English And Chinese Culture

3829 words - 15 pages English and Chinese culture are quite different from each other, because of different language habits, historical background, traditional customs and so on, The cultural differences between them are reflected obviously not only on literature, arts, thought etc, but also on something inconspicuous, such as the usage of color words. There are a large quantity of English color words. According to etymology, they can be divided into two kinds

Language And Sex. Sex Differences In Language

2977 words - 12 pages sociolinguistics. This branch of linguistics studies the infinite varieties of language within language: age differences, cultural differences, occupational vocabulary, slang,, styles of speech and writing, and many others, but including of course sex differences in language, which is the main subject in the following chapters.2. The interaction of social and biological processes in women's and men's speechAn important focus of debate within the research on