Yukl noted “another way to view leadership is in term of an influence process that occurs naturally with a social system and is diffused among the members” (2006, p. 4). His observation influences the belief that “leadership as a social process rather than as a specialized role” (2006, p. 4). Many scholars and practitioners also indicated that leadership implicates with social activities such as culture, education, economy, politics, society, and environment (Bass, 1997; Couto, 1995; Gardner, 1995; Kanter, 1991; Marques, 2010; Ogawa & Bossert, 1995). Yukl’s leadership perspective may refer to a framework that individuals use their knowledge—including values, beliefs, assumptions, and norms, abilities, and skills as inputs through process (leading) regarding situations that produce outputs—people (individual or group capability) and outcomes—change. To enhance leadership effectiveness may optimally enhance through these functions such as leading strategic change, understanding human activities, exercising decision-making process, and sustaining transformational leadership.
The studies about leadership have evolved since a century ago from trait approach to behavioral approach, and then contingency approach for finding and enhancing leadership effectiveness (Chemers, 1995; McLaurin & Al Amri, 2008). The earliest studies of leadership effectiveness focused on personality as leaders are different from ordinary people or above average which was trait approach in which researchers found that it did not relevantly sustain leadership effectiveness (Chemers, 1995). Leadership studies and researches were extended to study and research on personal behaviors as leadership styles such as Lewin and his associates proposed three leadership styles, autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire (Chemers, 1995).
However, later on, researchers found that by using leadership behavioral style was not an appropriate approach to such situations because leadership style could not influence subordinates’ interests and expectations in some situations. For example, Fiedler’s study found the least-preferred coworker or LPC scale related to group performance in which workgroup members who gave negatively rating to the LPC would consider the success of work task to be important (Chemers, 1995; Miller, Butler, & Cosentino, 2004). In contrast, leaders who gave positively rating to the LPC would consider relationship between leader and workgroup members influenced workgroup performance (Chemers, 1995, Miller et al., 2004).
According to the above observation, leadership effectiveness implicates with all three functions such as trait, behavior, and situation in form of social activity in which leaders carry out their abilities and skills with values, beliefs, assumptions, norms, and strategy to influence people around them to enhance better performance. Leadership effectiveness may consider that consists of three components of leader influence which are...