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The Different Structures, Designs, And Types Of A Business.

3141 words - 13 pages

Estructura vs. diseñoLa estructura considera la diferenciación, que es la división del trabajo de acuerdo con las actividades que deben ser desarrolladas, y por otro lado, la integración, que es la coordinación de dicha división de trabajo. Dicha estructura se visualiza a través del organigrama, el cual muestra las relaciones formales de autoridad, los canales de comunicación, los departamentos o divisiones y las líneas formales de responsabilidad. La estructura es el marco formal por medio del cual las tareas se dividen, se agrupan y se coordinan.Diseñar implica desarrollar o modificar la estructura de una organización. En el diseño organizacional es necesario tener en cuenta los siguientes pasos:*Especialización del trabajo*Departamentalización*Cadena de mando*Ámbito de control*Centralización y descentralización en la toma de decisiones*FormalizaciónDiferenciación e IntegraciónPara poder alcanzar una misión de manera mas eficiente las organizaciones dividen el trabajo en tareas y las asignan a distintos trabajadores. De esta manera se consigue que los empleados se especialicen en ellas.*Diferenciación: puede se horizontal o vertical.- La diferenciación horizontal consiste en la división del trabajo en actividades y tareas en el mismo nivel de la organización. Puede ser "simple" o "compleja". A medida que aumenta la especialización se incrementa la diferenciación horizontal.-departamentalización-criterios para definir sectores- La diferenciación vertical se refiere a la división del trabajo por nivel de autoridad, jerarquía o cadena de mando.-estructuras planas y altas*Integración: a la vez que una organización ejerce diferenciación debe integrar las actividades de una forma coordinada. Esta coordinación se denomina integración. Y es la principal responsabilidad de las personas que ocupan puestos directivos. Se puede conseguir la integración por medio de:-formalización- centralización de autoridad- amplitud de control- estandarización.*Especialización: surge como consecuencia de la división del trabajo. (Ej.: especialización en la línea de montaje creada por Henry Ford). Describe el grado en que las tareas de una organización están divididas en trabajos independientes.*Departamentalización: es la agrupación de las actividades o de los conjuntos de tareas que son similares o que poseen una relación lógica para estar juntas. Esta directamente relacionado con el tamaño de la organización y con la complejidad de las funciones. Características:-en relación directa con el tamaño y la complejidad de las tareas-se da a cualquier nivel jerárquico-es diferente en cada...

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