This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Differential Knowledge Essay

2081 words - 8 pages

If one is not able to differentiate between his dreaming state and his conscious state, then I agree with Descartes' claim that he cannot attain knowledge that derives from his senses. Because experiences in vivid dreams are no more than one's imagination at work, it would be wrong to consider them as more than false beliefs. And, as it is the case that false beliefs are not sufficient grounds of knowledge, Descartes intends to show that true beliefs are doubtable in which equivocates them to false beliefs, and therefore any doubtable belief is not pertinent, vis-à-vis., knowledge. In short, without being able to doubt or deny beliefs that derive from the senses, Descartes' argument does not stand. And here is where I intent to knock it down. I argue that due to one's physiological responses he is able to differentiate between a dreaming state and a conscious state, and therefore one is able to avoid the burden of doubtable beliefs in which allows him to attain knowledge that derives from sense experiences. In order to defend my argument, I will first outline Descartes intention, followed by the methodology with which he formulates his argument. In addition, I will provide examples to illustrate his premises, as well as my awaking twice example, which marks to start of my argument. Lastly, I will address a possible objection to my argument as well as my response.

In meditation I, Descartes' methodology breaks down what we claim to be knowledge and then rebuilds it. He does this by refuting the skeptic view. Here, I will take skepticism as denying all claims of knowledge. If Descartes is able to refute the skeptic then he is entitled to claim that we do know some things. It follows that he must show how we come to such knowledge. Then and only then, he is able to argue for which propositions we know with certainty, that is, beyond mere beliefs or opinions. Here the word "certainty" appears repetitive together with the word "know"; my intention is to show that these words are synonymously used for the purpose of this paper.

Although Descartes appears argue in favour of the skeptic view by initially denying knowledge of anything, this is simply the starting point of his argument. That is to say, by denying all knowledge, he is able to break down everything that we claim to be knowledge, and, to reiterate, rebuild it. In addition, by arguing in favour of the skeptic view, Descartes is able to shed light on the weaknesses of the skeptic's argument, because, ultimately, Descartes intends to discredit the skeptic view. Thus, to put it more formally, his intention is to critically distinguish between what we know and what we do not know. From his distinction, he infers four general concepts: we know that we exist or, more specifically, Descartes knows that he exists; we know that God exists; we know physical objects exist; and finally, the rules of mathematics are knowledge.

Descartes begins his denial of knowledge...

Find Another Essay On Differential Knowledge

The Bernoulli's: A Family of Reckoners

2308 words - 9 pages presentation of calculus which he had published in the Acta Eruditorum in 1684 (differential calculus) and in 1686(integral calculus)(Burton, 471). Few could comprehend his papers due to poor exposition and misprinting, but Jacob was able to teach his brother Johann Leibniz's techniques. Once Johann mastered the techniques he instructed L'Hospital in calculus, who then passed his knowledge of the subject to Huygens(Burton, 471). So the development of

Deviance is Relative Essay

1555 words - 6 pages “Deviance is Relative” is a controversial topic that has caused intrigued sociologists to have debates in order to come to a conclusion. Because there is no absolute standard application towards deviating behavior, we can only gain knowledge through practical implications, main ideas, and concepts & processes. Practical Implications of “Deviance is Relative” There is no absolute way of defining deviating acts. Deviance can only be defined in


824 words - 4 pages that allocation was concealed since the participants or the investigators did not know who will go into either group. In addition, the computer system was used to allocate participants into the study as one way of concealment, though it is not clear whether the person running the program was not aware of the study. As allocation was done by the computer, there was concealment as the computer had no knowledge as to who goes into either group

Mathematician: John Forbes Nash Jr

795 words - 4 pages John Forbes Nash Jr. was born on June 13, 1928 in Bluefield, West Virginia. John grew up to be one of the greatest mathematicians of his generation. Nash’s works in game theory, differential geometry, and particle differential equations are now used across the world in things such as: market economics, evolutionary biology, accounting, computing, politics, military theory, as well as others. As stated before, Nash was born on June 13

Euclid and Archimedes

1036 words - 5 pages 260 B.C.E., is often referred to as the Father of Geometry. Very little is known about his life or exact place of birth, other than the fact that he taught mathematics at the Alexandria library in Alexandria, Egypt during the reign of Ptolemy I. He also wrote many books based on mathematical knowledge, such as Elements, which is regarded as one of the greatest mathematical/geometrical encyclopedias of all time, only being outsold by the Bible

Strategic Marketing

753 words - 3 pages external environment which influence the resource capabilities (1, ch01). Strategic marketing planning level consists of conducting a situation analysis, developing marketing objectives, determining the positioning of the product and the differential advantage in the market. The marketer then selects the target markets by measuring the market demand of the product. Once all the phases have been successfully completed, the designing and implementation of

Risk Management Issue in Pediatric Clinic

2458 words - 10 pages can prove to be beneficial in the future to ensure safe, competent care and avoidance of the event occurring again. The outcome of T.G.s case could have been different had the NP considered other options in providing his care. The NP could have made a list of differential diagnosis that could have helped them better narrow down the list of possible diagnoses. By including a list, they could have thought of other diagnostic exams that might have

feasibility study

1749 words - 7 pages ˚S, 169˚E of Port Resolution. A range of field tests and observations enabled information to be acquired regarding the required design parameters for the design of the potable water supply and wastewater disposal and treatment system. Well dipping was achieved with the assistance of the locals and information was gathered about the properties of the freshwater aquifer. Differential levelling methods and the use of a Trimble Pathfinder ProXRT

Management of Head and Neck Injury

1457 words - 6 pages In the case study provided, the 82 year old unconscious female needs an assessment and a differential diagnosis completed so that the paramedics know how to treat and to determine if the patient is time or transport critical. A differential diagnosis comes from the paramedics’ education and the patient’s history, current vitals signs, and pertinent knowledge gained from those at the scene. The paramedic must, after the differential diagnosis

The Effects of Public News on Political Knowledge

2224 words - 9 pages York: Chatham House Delli Carpini, M. and Keeter, S. (1996) What Americans Know About Politics and Why it Matters, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press OR Carpini, M. X. D. (1996). What Americans know about politics and why it matters. Yale University Press. (VERIFY APA) De Vreese, C. H., & Boomgaarden, H. (2006). News, political knowledge and participation: The differential effects of news media exposure on political knowledge and participation

Nursing as a profession

1005 words - 5 pages . Importantly, she emphasized that the profession is increasingly being redefined in terms of unique primary knowledge derived from ongoing nursing research, and emergence from a history of apprenticeship to scientific research based on evidence based nursing data. The goal of these efforts is to improve and standardize nursing knowledge and theory, create cohesiveness and to elevate entry to the profession at the university level (46-47). Discussion On

Similar Essays

Aerodynamics Essay

1076 words - 5 pages that we will see the effects that the sail shape has on the airflow and how that shape creates a differential in pressure; thereby, clearly understanding the force lift. As you can see in the wind tunnel above, the sail takes on an airfoil like shape. There is a leading edge and a trailing edge. The leading edge of the sail has a camber to it. This camber is what creates the different air flow velocities around the sail. It accomplishes

Why Do Kids Smoke? Analyzed Using Sutherland's Differential Association Theory Tool

2361 words - 9 pages times as likely to use marijuana, and 22 times as likely to use cocaine. Smoking is also associated with numerous other high risk behaviors, including fighting and having unprotected sex." (CDC, 2003)Teen smoking is the social phenomenon that will be addressed within this paper. The topic will be defined and further analyzed through Edwin Sutherland's Differential Association Theory. Sutherland's theory tool is an excellent tool for this

Semantic Differential Scale To Assess The Public Image Of Police

2236 words - 9 pages Europe, comparing firsthand knowledge with experience from the West. Ljubljana. College of Police and Security Studies. Str. 531-538 Mindak, W. A. (1961). Fitting the semantic differential to the marketing problem. Journal of Marketing, 25, 28-33. Osgood, C.E. (1971). Exploration in semantic space: a personal diary. Journal of Social Issues. 27, 4, 5-64 Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. (1957). The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL

A Comparison Of The Perceptions Of Love, Anger, And Guilt In Portugal And The United States And Implications For Counseling

4631 words - 19 pages important for counselors and psychologists to have a clear understanding of how issues such as language, gender, emotional expressions and experience affect the ways a counselor and client alike construct meaning in the world. This is one reason that it is important to conduct studies comparing the ways people from different cultures and countries perceive feelings. These kinds of studies add to the knowledge psychologists have about the ways the