Digestion And Metabolism Essay

1103 words - 5 pages

Digestion occurs in the gastrointestinal system, which is composed of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and the associated accessory organs. The process of digestion occurs through six steps, namely ingestion, secretion, mixing, digestion, absorption and defecation. (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
Anatomy of the digestive system
The GI tract is also called as the alimentary canal, which is essentially a long winding tube of approximately 30 feet (9 meters). The mouth, esophagus, pharynx, stomach, small and large intestines and the anus, make up the GI tract. The salivary glands, tongue, teeth, gall bladder, pancreas and the liver form the associated accessory organs (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
The mouth. The mouth starts with the oral orifice and extends up to the opening of the pharynx. The palate forms the roof of the mouth. It helps separating mouth cavity from the nasal passage. The mouth consists of the teeth and the tongue. The teeth help breaking down the food into smaller pieces. The tongue helps pushing the food down the esophagus. (Tortora & Derrickson, 2008).
The salivary glands. There are three extrinsic salivary glands in the mouth, namely, the parotid (located beneath the skin of the oral cavity, behind the jaw and anterior to the ear lobe), the submandibular (located along the jaw) and the sublingual glands (located under the tongue). The acidic saliva (pH 6.35-6.85) secreted by these glands is composed of water, salivary α- amylase (ptyalin), chloride ions, buffer in the form of bicarbonate and phosphate, IgA and lysozyme. Saliva breaks down carbohydrates and lipids in the mouth (de Almeida et al, 2008).
The pharynx. The pharynx or the throat forms a common passage for food and air. The epiglottis closes the trachea so that food enters only through the esophagus. (Saladin, 2007).
The esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube lined with mucus secreting cells. The masticated food passes down through peristalsis. Upper esophageal sphincter controls the top part of the tube and acts similar to the epiglottis, preventing air from entering the stomach, while the lower esophageal sphincter prevents acid reflux. Esophagus runs through the diaphragm to bulge into a sac like stomach (Saladin, 2007).
The stomach. The stomach is present on the left of the alimentary canal in the form of a bulged J. The smaller curved portion is superior and medial, while the larger curvature is inferior and lateral. It starts with cardiac orifice and ends in pylorus (opening of the small intestine). There are four regions in the stomach: 1) cardia, which is a small area within the cardiac orifice; 2) fundus, which is superior to the cardiac orifice; 3) the body, which is inferior to the cardiac orifice; and 4) the pylorus. The stomach is lined with gastric mucosa, which folds when the stomach is empty. These folds are called gastric rugae. Gastric mucosa is composed of five different types of cells: stem cells, chief, parietal, enteroendocrine and mucus...

Find Another Essay On Digestion and Metabolism

Digestion of a Bologna Sandwich Essay

1631 words - 7 pages The Digestive System is an organ system that processes food and extracts nutrients from it. It also eliminates residue. The digestive system is able to do this in four stages known as ingestion, digestion, absorption and defecation. The digestive system has two anatomical subdivisions known as the digestive tract, which includes the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and the accessory organs, which

Disecting A Fetal Pig - Lab Report

1060 words - 5 pages IntroductionThe dissection of the fetal pig in the laboratory is important because pigs and humans have the same level of metabolism and have similar organs and systems. Also, fetal pigs are a byproduct of the pork food industry so they aren't raised for dissection purposes, and they are relatively inexpensive.Procedure - as in the text bookPurpose:The purpose of such activity is to dissect the fetal pig and observe various

Healthy Diets for Healthy Bowels

751 words - 4 pages vitamins and probiotic supplements to achieve a healthier digestive system. Yogurt is a good source of good bacteria or probiotics that is crucial for a healthy colon. These bacteria also help your body in producing vitamin B12 that is essential in speeding up the metabolism. Vitamin B6 also plays a large role in maintaining healthy digestion since it helps break down proteins consumed in the body. Be active Physical activity or exercise is also

environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals

988 words - 4 pages function Thyroid hormones not only play an important role in maintaining basic metabolism, digestion and normal function of nervous system for adults but also are essential to promote children’s growth and development as well as fetuses’ nervous and intellectual development. Therefore, EDC’s effects on thyroid function in different development periods attract much attention. People living in the east of Slovakia have suffered from thyroid diseases

Thyroid Disease

736 words - 3 pages atoms of iodine and T4 gets four. Iodine plays a significant role in thyroid metabolism, and it is even more imperative because the body cannot generate iodine; it must be obtained through food intake. When food reaches the intestine during digestion, the iodine is extracted from and released into the bloodstream. The iodine travels through the blood to the thyroid, where the thyroid follicles absorb the iodine. Once the iodide ions are

Cells: How Their Processes Work and are Important

736 words - 3 pages As we all know, cells are the building blocks of life. But we wonder, how? Why must an organism have cells? How are cells most important? Well, metabolism may be the first step towards your answer. Metabolism is the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism. In other words, metabolism is what the cell does to keep itself and the organism alive! To go more into specifics into metabolism, we need to know about the six

The properties and biological importance's of water to living organisms

1489 words - 6 pages solution, and human digestion will only dissolve soluble foods, so large starch molecules must be broken down in soluble sugars, such as glucose. The crucial reactions of metabolism take place in the protoplasm with the materials in solution. Waste products can also be removed in solution, for example in urine. Gas exchange requires a moist surface, since gas exchange takes place in solution. In mammals, the alveoli in the lungs are moist with

Causes of Global Warming

667 words - 3 pages concentration and invariably have ecological consequences. Fish obtain energy from protein and non protein sources but the use of protein energy is wasteful from nutritional, economic, and ecological points of view (Manjappa et al 2002). Energy utilization and metabolism from carbohydrate or lipid sources in fish varies among species, age group, enzyme profile composition of the fish and the source or origin of the nutrient and a delicate balance exists

Beneficial Effects of Probiotics

1562 words - 7 pages these products. this works because lactobacillus plantarum 229v contains many gene from the PHX group. This particular group of genes is usually connected with versatility and also adaptation ability of microorganism. Another part of the genome sequence also indicates the lactobacillus plantarum 229v ability to not only help metabolism and digestion, it can also help with cell regulation and transport. This is because this part of the genome

The Endocrine System

529 words - 3 pages by glands, and transported by the circulatory system to a distant target organ to coordinate its physiology and behavior. Hormones serve as a major form of communication between different organs and tissues. Hormones regulate a variety of physiological and behavioral activities, including digestion,metabolism, respiration, tissue function, sensory perception, sleep, excretion, lactation, stress, growth and development, movement,reproduction, and

Research Task

1426 words - 6 pages Introduction (Rationale) I have chosen this topic because enzymes are an essential part of human’s everyday life. We, as humans, produce more than 10 000 enzymes and each one has its own unique and specific use in our body. Most of those enzymes are used in our metabolism and, being a fitness maniac, I am very interested to know how my metabolism works and how it differs from others. I will be doing quantitative research on the enzyme

Similar Essays

Quick Assignment On The Digestive System And How The Different Types Of Foods Eg Protein,Carbohydrates Ect Are Broken Down In The Body

986 words - 4 pages Digestive System AssignmentIntroduction: Digestion is the process of breaking down food into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into the bloodstream.The digestive systems most important function is to provide the body with ENERGY. Other functions include:·Aid in the digestion and metabolism of food·Muscle contraction·Circulation and formation of blood cells·Building new tissues-maintenance and repair·Nerve

Digestive System Essay

1628 words - 7 pages consists of the following: mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, large intestine, rectum, and anus (slideshare). Types of Digestion There are 2 different types of digestion: chemical digestion and mechanical digestion (slideshare). Mechanical digestion is simply digestion that is achieved through a movement, or mechanism (stek). There are 2 types of this: mastication and peristalsis. The first step of digestion

Meta Tag Description Essay

1039 words - 4 pages metabolism preventing acne * Vitamin B3 improves metabolism and digestion * Vitamin B5 balances hormones aiding in cure for acne related to hormonal imbalance * Vitamin B6 boosts immune system and resistance to acne * Vitamin C promotes healing by its antioxidant properties Some vitamins in excess are as dangerous as their deficiencies, do not overdo stuff. Endocrine glands, Hormones, Signals

The Chemistry Of The Human Digestive System

1502 words - 7 pages people misunderstand the powerful process that chemistry plays in our bodies and our everyday life. When certain food is consumed, how is it that the human body can turn this food into fuel? Thanks to the digestive system and its many organs, through the process of digestion, we can receive the energy needed from the consumption of the food we eat which allows our bodies to continue. As soon as food enters our body, chemistry starts taking