Diplomacy By Henry Kissinger Essay

3819 words - 15 pages

Chapter 17: Foreign Policy
Chapter 17Foreign PolicyChapter SummaryFacing the World: Foreign and Defense PolicyForeign policy is the term used to describe a nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them. Two key aspects of foreign policy are national security, the protection of the independence and political integrity of the United States, and diplomacy, the settlement of disputes and conflicts among nations by peaceful methods.Morality versus Reality in Foreign PolicyFrom the beginning of the United States, many American policymakers have felt an obligation to provide moral leadership to the rest of the world. Many of the U.S. foreign policy initiatives seem to be rooted in moral idealism, a philosophy that sees all nations as willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct. The Peace Corps, established by President Kennedy, is a good example of this concept. In opposition to the moral perspective is political realism. This philosophy sees the world as a dangerous place in which each nation strives for survival. The United States has generally pursued a foreign policy that attempts to balance these philosophies.Challenges in World PoliticsIn a new development, dissident groups, rebels, and other revolutionaries have used modern weapons to engage in terrorism in order to affect world politics. The long-standing regional conflict in the Middle East has produced a number of terrorist acts worldwide in the last two decades. In 2001, terrorism came to the United States with the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. The dissolution of the Soviet Union brought a lowering of tensions among the nuclear powers, but the number and location of nuclear weapons continues to be a major problem. The emergence of China as a major trading partner of the United States and the most populous nation in the world has altered world trade policies. This is just one of the major developments in the global economy. Since the 1980s the United States has become a debtor nation. We owe more to foreigners than foreigners owe to us.The United States sent more than a half-million troops to push Iraq out of Kuwait in 1991. In 2003, the United States invaded and occupied Iraq, as part of the War on Terrorism. See Figure 17-1 for a look at ethnic and religious groups in Iraq. In addition to the war in Iraq, the issues of nuclear proliferation and the emergence of China as a superpower have caused concern for U.S. policy makers. Regional conflicts throughout the world have replaced the Cold War as a major focus of U.S. foreign policy. Unrest in the island nations of Haiti and Cuba produced a flood of immigrants, which has particularly affected the state of Florida. Clashes between Israel and its Arab neighbors have been a concern of the United States since the conflict began in 1948. As recently as the summer 2006, violence continued to erupt, as Israel went to war with the militant group Hezbollah in Lebanon. Ethnic violence...

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