Discovering Computer Networks Today Essay

1964 words - 8 pages

In many countries worldwide businesses and educational institutions make up a large percentage of society. These places need a way of being able to share information and to communicate within the business or school. They also need to be able to share business plans or other information with outside organizations. Computers were originally developed for individual use only. The importance of sharing data forced manufacturers to create techniques for connecting computers and this was the beginning of computer networks. Soon the importance of networks was realized in business organizations and today almost every organization in the world has its own computer network. Educational institutions are also following suit because networking provides a method for effective management and can also help in improving the knowledge of students. Computer networks are becoming the main source of operation and communication for businesses and educational institutions.
To know more about computer networks it is first important to know about the internet. The internet was thought up in the early 1960’s by people who saw potential in the fact that information and research could be shared between computers. In his book Defining Moments the Internet Revolution (2005), Hillstrom notes that: a researcher at The Massachusetts Institute of Technology named J.C.R Licklider proposed a plan for a global network of computers and went to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to develop it. In 1966 Lawrence Roberts of M.I.T moved over to DARPA to develop his plans for the ARPANET. The ARPANET was the world first computer network it was brought online in 1969 under a contract from the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). The internet’s sole purpose at that time was to provide a communications network that would work even if some of the sites were destroyed by a nuclear attack. The internet was mainly used by computer experts, scientists, engineers, and librarians. Anyone who used the internet in those days had to learn how to use a very complex system. On October 29, 1969, computers at Stanford and UCLA connected to the internet for the first time. As the internet evolved in the early 1970’s, the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol) was conceived to unify the different network methods. Since computers could only communicate with other computers if they were on the same network, so the TCP/IP was developed to solve this (Gallo & Hancock, 1999, p. 47). The E-mail was developed for ARPANET by Ray Tomlinson of BBN in 1972. He picked the @ symbol from the available symbols on his teletype to link usernames and addresses. In 1985 the internet was strictly a text based system, there were no images like many of us see today. The Ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LAN) that was brought into commercial use in May 22, 1973 (Hillstrom, 2005, p. 37).
In the 1980s Joseph...

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