This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Discuss How Politeness Forms In Language Interactions Are Used To Create And Reduce Social Distance In Australia Today.

1054 words - 4 pages

Polite language is used to create social distance and to avoid offending, or appearing rude towards, others. The level of polite language used is determined according to the Principle of Appropriateness; it depends on how much social distance exists between the interlocutors, the formality of the situation, how the power in the relationship is balanced, and, if a question is being asked, how imposing the request is to the person who is required to carry it out. It also relates to positive and negative face and how we behave in order to "save face". Society's changing social expectations ensure that the language and behaviour we consider as polite is changing as well.Politeness is used as a way to avoid conflict and to create an appropriate amount of social distance, and the language used must adhere to the rules of the Principle of Appropriateness. The level of polite language used will vary according to the formality of the relationship between the interlocutors. For example, there is a high level of social distance between an employee and their boss, so it is more likely that formal language will be used between them. Modal verbs play a large part in this; one is more likely to say, "May I please open the window? It's a little stuffy in here" in a formal context than with friends, when they may say, "I'm going to open the window". In a highly formal context it is also likely that an individual would speak indirectly; rather than asking, they may say "Gosh! It's warm in here," indicating that they would like the window to be opened. By using a declarative rather than an interrogative sentence, the speaker is avoiding social conflict- the other person has no real obligation to carry out the implied request. Forms of address also play a part in the language used in a situation; one would refer to a teacher as "Mr Wilson", since there is a considerable amount of social distance, but would call a friend "Dave". However, too much social distance is also a problem; using overly polite language might result in social friction. Overusing polite language is often a problem for speakers of English as a second language, who may have learnt a formal, somewhat archaic version of English through textbooks, rather than with first-hand experience.Polite language is also used for you, and others, to "save face". There are two types of face: positive and negative. Negative face is the freedom to have your own space; for example, by stepping on someone's foot, one would be imposing on their space, and must apologise in order to maintain their face and your own. Positive face, on the other hand, is your personality and how others view you. This is the reason one would apologise when they impose on someone's negative face; by being polite, their positive face is maintained, or "saved", and others regard them as a good person. In order to maintain face, a person must help others maintain their own face; for example, if someone is rude to another person, that person...

Find Another Essay On Discuss how politeness forms in language interactions are used to create and reduce social distance in Australia today.

Discuss some ways in which statistics are used or misused in different Areas of Knowledge to assist and mislead us

1007 words - 4 pages statistic evidence, both of them are important.Sometimes statistics could be used to distort our understanding dependent on two possibilities. One possible would be that we are more subjective to judge about the reality by our emotion, experience, and perception. The other possible would be statistic errors and unreal statistic. For instance, the statistic noticed that the unemployed rate was 4.3% last year. In fact some of eastern cities reached 6

Discuss how gender and sexuality are represented in urban literature. (Texts used are The International by Glenn Patterson and Devil in a Blue Dress by Walter Mosley)

2137 words - 9 pages The topics of gender and sexuality are inherent with urban society as they are concerned with everyday sexual or gender-related encounters. As a consequence it is important to discuss how these topics are represented in urban literature. The texts I will be discussing in regards to the question are The International by Glenn Patterson, and Devil in a Blue Dress by Walter Mosley. Both texts relate to different urban cities and decades, The

Both Steinbeck And Shelley Create Characters Who Are Alienated From Society. Discuss How Their Characters Are Portrayed

2379 words - 10 pages Both Steinbeck And Shelley Create Characters Who Are Alienated From Society. Discuss How Their Characters Are PortrayedIn both "Frankenstein" and "Of Mice and Men", there have been characters created who have been alienated from society.We can compare the characters of the creature and Lennie; they are described as or given the image of their child like behaviour and thoughts, "His jaws opened, and he muttered some inarticulate sounds while a

Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the cognitive level of analysis

1332 words - 6 pages This essay will discuss about how and why particular research methods are used to investigate the cognitive level of analysis. The cognitive level of analysis studies cognition, which refers to mental processes such as: perception, attention, language, memory, decision-making and problem solving. The mind, in terms of structures and processes which are involved in the reception, storage and use of knowledge, is studied in this level of

"What You Say Is Who You Are" : Language and how it is used

1578 words - 6 pages of the speaker, taken from within, so to speak, turns out to be wholly a product of social interrelations" (Bakhtin 935).Bakhtin's idea of language and social status uniting to form a fundamental aspect of a person's life and personality is aptly captured in Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" with the metaphorical transformation of the main character into a giant bug. The image of an insect is used because insects are generally regarded as useless

Explore the features of the language used in digital communications which suggest that they are closer to spoken rather than written language. Com

2120 words - 9 pages is used at the beginning of Text A. These two features illustrate that the writer and audience are familiar with each other, as there is use of colloquial language, specific to a spoken conversation. An alternative reason for using Non-standard spelling is to perhaps express the speaker’s accent as the phonetic spelling is written according to how it sounds, rather than how it is represented in written form. In a BBC News article, it says that a

Describe several language techniques used in each text. Explain why they are important

551 words - 2 pages From the perspective of soldiers we experience what men suffered during World War I. Through the vivid imagery and the dramatic language in the poems 'Attack' and 'Exposure', Siegfried Sassoon and Wilfred Owen share their views on war. That all war is- is fear, misery and death.Sasson descibes a battlefield where men are on the attack. They follow behind a tank, fighting their way up a "scarred slope", clambering over barbed wire, right into the

Identify the underlying theme in a Shakespearian play you have studied. Discuss the relevance of these themes in the context to the period and why they are still relevant today

1448 words - 6 pages contextualisation, quotes and scenes from the text as well as examples from today's society will prove that the social order are still undergoing the same religious and racial issues as we once were in the context of the playwright.The merchant of Venice was written during the highly pious Elizabethan period, a time of religious controversy and due to certain prejudicial restrictions Shakespeare could not write against his own country for he would be persecuted

Criminal Justice/ DIscuss the Bill of rights and their court cases and how they are applied today

726 words - 3 pages America is widely recognized for the freedoms and equalities it gives its people. These equalities also extend to criminals and convicted felons. Under the Bill of Rights all Americans are entitled to certain rights and liberties, with this concept in mind the Supreme Court has interpreted many of these rights and liberties to protect the human rights of suspected criminals. During the 1950's and 1960's, one of the most pressing questions was

'Documentaries, like plays, novels and poems, are fictional forms'. What do you think Wiseman meant by this statement? Discuss with reference to a range of documentary material

1101 words - 4 pages format.Whether it is of a serious or light-hearted topic, there are always methods used in production to emphasise or get across a point.In lighter documentaries there are a multitude of narrative devices in play. The format is very smoothly presented, with a real sense of flow and direction. The depicted events are often ordered chronologically and told as a story. Amongst this there are many methods with which to tell the story, such as using sound

Critically discuss and evaluate the following statement: "It is quite clear that an individual State cannot create international law. Nor are the acts or statements of a single State of any...

517 words - 2 pages regulating international conduct - the crux of international law. This becomes more evident when we explore how state soverignty has declined since the Cold War and how the growth of transnational networks has left less power to individual states - which means that they will be less able to create international law on thier own, rather more power is held through the interactions of different individual states in these complex networks. As more

Similar Essays

Discuss How Financial Markets In Australia Are Regulated

1086 words - 4 pages Financial markets today play a significant role in the Australia economy. Financial market is a place where various financial instruments such as securities and bonds are traded. Like other traditional markets, financial markets provide a place for people who have excess funds and people who have the need for these funds to meet and trade. Exchange of funds is done through financial intermediaries. Financial intermediaries are firms that receive

An Analysis Of How Narrative And Genre Are Used To Create Meaning And Generate Audience Response In The Opening Of "Rear Window" (Hitchcock, Usa 1954)

1472 words - 6 pages The opening of "Rear Window" is very traditional, literally a curtain raiser for the film. The genre and narrative strands that are introduced, however, are not quite as clear as we might expect from our prior expectations of a Hitchcock thriller. This essay will examine how the opening introduces the audience to the world of the courtyard and the main characters in a way that suggests that the predominant genre of the film may be romantic

Title:Choose Two Of The Most Moving Moments In Captain Corelli's Mandolin And Explain Why They Have This Effect On The Reader. Look Closely At How Language Is Used To Create Pathos

1249 words - 5 pages Choose two of the most moving moments in Captain Corelli's Mandolin and explain why they have this effect on the reader. Look closely at how language is used to create pathos.L' Omosessuale (1) is a very sensitive and intimate chapter and allows us intoCarlo's deepest and most hidden thoughts. De Bernieres creates sympathy for Carlothrough the fact that his homosexuality has to remain unknown "I have beenreduced to eternal and infinite silence

Discuss How Financial Markets In Australia Are Regulated By The Reserve Bank Of Australia, The Australian Prudential Regulation Authority And The Australian Securities And Investments Commission

1309 words - 5 pages Financial markets are an important component of Australia's economy. They provide a return for those who have extra income, while at the same time making loans available those who need additional funds. They influence all other industries because of their key role in the economy. To protect the overall economy and the individual sectors, there are three major regulators of financial markets; RBA, APRA, and ASIC.RBAThe Reserve Bank of Australia