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Discuss Parkinson's Disease And Criticize South African Parkinson's Association Phamplet

3910 words - 16 pages

In 1817 , a London physician named James Parkinson wrote the first information of Parkinson's disease in his essay of the shaking palsy , and now in just under 200 years it has become the second most common neurogenic disorder affecting approximately 1% of the world population over 50 years old. However very few people know what Parkinson's is and its influence to the everyday life of a suffer. So in this essay critically evaluate the Parkinson association of South Africa pamphlet by covering the most common questions asked by potential suffers or their families in order to determine what effects Parkinson's disease has on a sufferer.Before I begin to evaluating the pamphlet it would be helpful to familiarize ourselves with what Parkinson disease is, how it is brought about and who is mainly affected. Parkinson's disease is a progressive, neurological disorder, occurring when nerve cells do not work properly in a particular area of the brain, called the substantia nigra, which is a pigmented nucleus in the brain stem ( Alexander, Fawcett & Runciman ,2000) .The substantia nigra forms part of the basal ganglia which consists of several clusters of cell bodies receiving impulses from different parts of the cerebral cortex. These nerve cells produce and store dopamine and acetylcholine, the chemical messenger which co-ordinates the body's movements, the chemical messengers work in balance to transmit messages between nerve cells and muscles enabling a person to perform a range of co-coordinated movements. In people with Parkinson's this balance is upset because some of the dopamine-producing cells are lost resulting in stiffness in the muscles, slowness of movement, difficulty when starting movements and, in some people, tremor. Other significant symptoms are bradykinesia, involuntary movement and many other disabling effects (Scott 2002). This project fromThe symptoms of Parkinson's do not appear until about 80% of the dopamine has been lost, and the level of dopamine continues to fall slowly over many years. However, each person with Parkinson's is very different and the rate of progression will vary enormously from one person to another. It is extremely difficult to diagnose Parkinson's as there is no routinely available test or scan that provides a definite diagnosis. However Brooks (1997) suggests CT scans may be considered to eliminate other disorders and that diagnosis should be based on clinical presentation.Bradykinesia involves movement and can occur in any activity of daily living, walking, talking, dressing and swallowing. There could also be difficulty with hesitancy clumsiness, co-ordination and loss of facial expression. This can frustrate and distress the patient as not only do others assume that the person is either bored or uninterested but these symptoms often influence professionals working with the patient (Findley, 2000).Communication difficulties often increases as the disease progresses, the voice may become quite,...

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