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Discuss The Contribution Of Different Approaches To Psychology For The Development Of Modern Psychology

1403 words - 6 pages

In 1590 a Greek named Rudolph Goclenius created the word psychology. The English word of psychology is originated from two Greek words “psyche” and “logos.” Psyche means soul and logos mean the study or knowledge. Therefore it was apprehended to be a study of soul in the early time. But later it was acknowledged as the study of the mind (Saylor Academy n.d.). Gradually in late 18th century & 19th century the word psychology was redefined by philosophers in a different way. Philosophers such as John Watson (1913) defined it as “the science of behavior” relating it into a behavioral term. Currently there’s an agreement among psychologists in describing psychology as the study of behavior and ...view middle of the document...

d.). He further developed his theory of the unconscious mind by presenting the theory on dream interpretation. This practice is the most glaringly used in Psychoanalysis even today (Approaches to psychology n.d.).
Behaviorism has always been a controversial topic. According to Albert Bandura, environment causes behavior, and behavior causes environment as well. Behaviorism is all about why we do what we do, and what we should and should not do. It demands that psychology should point out the behavior of humans and non-humans. Conversing about it, it is important to highlight that there are three categories of behavioral approach. Social Learning, which is a cognitive activity and occurs in a social background purely through observation or strict order. Through observations of rewards and punishments learning also happens as an indirect reinforcement in social learning. Classical Conditioning, a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired. Example: Ivan Pavlov’s experiment using a dog and food as the responses and a bell as a stimuli. Operant Conditioning, which is the third category explains learning by consequences. Example: B.F. Skinner’s experiment on Rats pressing the lever to get food (Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy 2010). All of the above mentioned behavioral approaches are vastly used in modern psychology. Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning are used in most of the workplaces. Classical conditioning is majorly used in corporate sector as well as in advertising. It is also used to treat anxiety, phobias and panic disorders. This theory also has been an advantage when it’s related to train animals (example: dogs). Social learning is used in our day-to-day lives.
Biological approach likewise is massively used in modern psychology. It’s the study of psychology in term of bodily mechanisms. Plato and Aristotle are two key persons who explained the theory between mind and body. As per Plato mind and body are connected but located in two different places. He mentioned the mind was superior in a human body. Meantime, Aristotle, Plato’s student mentioned, mind and body are not two different things. He also mentioned that you understand the mind by studying the body. Further he explained that experience is gained by knowledge, observation and experimentation. Later came Rene Descartes (1596 – 1650) who spoke about the mind as a spiritual entity and the body as a physical entity and the two interacted through the pineal gland a tiny structure at the base of the brain. This position became known as the dualism. Researchers who look into this approach might study how genetics can influence various behaviors and when a specific area of the brain is damaged how it can effect on the behavior and the personality. Biological psychologists are interested in fields such as the brain, the immune system, the nervous system, genetics and the endocrine systems etc. Due to this interest Biological approach has significantly...

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