Discuss The Rise And Consolidation Of Fascism In Italy.

2301 words - 9 pages

....Given that the 19th century was the century of Socialism, of Liberalism, and of Democracy, it des not necessarily follow that the twentieth century must also be a century of Socialism, Liberalism and democracy: political doctrines pass, but humanity remains, and it may rather be expected that this will be a century of authority...a century of Facism....1On October 29, 1922, Mussolini and some 50.000 blackshirts marched on Rome, but rather than this being a violent event to try to bring him into power as originally planned, it was a march of victory. Just before the march was to take place, the government had drawn up a decree for the King Victor Emmanuel to sign, which would decree martial law. For fear of this causing a civil war he refused and asked Mussolini to form the cabinet and become himself Prime Minister. Though this began what would later become his Dictatorship in a Totalitarian state, we need to look still further back to see how these events came to be, and why and how Fascism took its hold in Italian Politics.Some say that one could go as far back as 1870 to look at Italy's economic and social structure to understand which elements under certain circumstances favoured the fascist movement and brought it to power. Instead, I am, going to look at Italy's position from the Libyan War onwards, to see just how Mussolini and fascism were able to take root in Italian politics.Although Italy had always been interested in North Africa, when Britain and France began to take interest in North African shipping lines, Italy became alarmed at losing what was a generally recognised right of pre - emption over Libya. Also, from the nationalist's point of view, they did not like the prospect of another humiliation such as their loss of Tunis in 1881. Therefore Italy invaded Libya in September 1911, and in just over a year the Turkish Empire handed Libya over. However, in the process this victory had destroyed Giolliti's hopes of Transformismo, and also his tacit alliance with the moderate Socialists who were against the war. It was at this point that Mussolini began to make his mark. He was at the time, editor of Avanti!, the Socialist Party newspaper. He began to write articles denouncing the war, militarism and the corrupt parliamentary system, therefore making a name for himself as a firebrand and also a great journalist.Two years later on, The Great War caused a turning point in Mussolini's career. At first, like all Socialists he adopted a stance against the war and condemned it as imperialist, but soon wavered and turned to the bourgeois rebels who sought to use the conflict to destroy the Giolittian political system. He wrote a famous editorial in Avanti! Called "From passive to Operative and Active Neutrality" in which he tried to urge the Socialists toward a pro - war stand. Unfortunately for him, the Socialists were against this and ousted Mussolini from the party. Here on, he set up his own newspaper, Il Popolo d'Italia that was...

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