Leadership defined has two fundamental difficulties, firstly, similar to notions such as ‘love’, ‘freedom’ and ‘happiness’, leadership is a complicated idea that has subjective interpretations (Bolden, 2004). Everyone has their own understanding of what leadership is, based on a mixture of personal experiences and learnings.
Secondly, the way leadership is defined and understood through one’s influenced theoretical stance (Bolden, 2004). Those who view leadership as the outcome of individual characteristics possessed by a leader, whilst others perceive leadership as a social development that emerges from organisational relationships. Both are subject to co-exist as the development of organisational culture is largely related to its leadership, as well as the cultural aspect of an organisation has impacts on the development of its leadership. (Bass and Avolio, 1993).
Self sacrificing and leadership effectiveness plays a distinctive role in shaping the organisation culture, as many people are influenced by great leaders. Many stories about great leaders, be it political leaders, military leaders, religious leaders, or leaders of organisations, give an understanding of the self-sacrifice leaders were willing to make for the greater good (Van Knippenberg and Van Knippenberg, 2005). This demonstrates the clear understanding that people are inspired by self-sacrificing behaviours, by others and their allocated meaning/purpose to these specific acts. It is assumed that leaders have an insightful affect on their followers and eventually on organisational cultural processes. Theories of charismatic and transformational leadership (Bass and Avolio, 1993) suggests that general transformational and charismatic leadership is considered to display an increase in combined identity and a common missions, advanced leader effectiveness, a greater level of commitment, motivation, the voluntary act of personal sacrifices, and ultimately, increased organisational performance (Shamir. B, House. R.J and Arthur. M.B 1993), which in most cases is considered the successful functionality of an organisation.
In addition to self sacrificing and leadership effectiveness, there are four basic hypotheses underlying most behaviours of leadership. This is suggested to be function, role, the individual and the culture (Ogawa and Bossert, 1995). The first assumption, suggests that leadership functions to influence organisational performance (Pfeffer, 1977). The second assumption considers leadership to be related to organisational roles. The third demonstrates that leaders are individuals who possess certain attributes, act in certain ways, or attain a combination of the two. The forth assumption argues that leaders operate within organisational cultures (Daft and Weick, 1984).
The first assumption, function of leadership is that its purpose is to influence the performance of organisations by shaping the behaviours of the individuals. This is suggested to be the most...