This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Discuss The Different Neoplasms Which May Arise In The Lung. Discuss Their Staging And Grading With Regard To Prognosis And Treatment. Are There Any Promising New Treatment Modalities?

2142 words - 9 pages

IntroductionThe impact of lung cancer in our society cannot be denied. According to "Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in Australia and most other Western industrialized countries. One in 28 Australians will develop lung cancer by the age of 75, and about 6,700 Australians die from lung cancer each year". Lung cancer is one of the more difficult cancers to detect at its early stages and is one of the more difficult cancers to cure. However understanding the different neoplasms arising in the lung, as well as their staging and grading with regard to prognosis, has lead to some promising new treatment modalities.Neoplasms of the lung"Neoplasia literally means 'new growth'. It is a process which causes uncontrolled abnormal growth of tissue. Such tissue serves no useful function and does not coordinate with other body tissues. The mass of tissue formed by neoplasia is a neoplasm" van de Mortel (1998:29). Lung cancer is a primary malignant neoplasm occurring in the bronchus, trachea or lung tissue. Most originate in the lining of the bronchi and are caused by exposure to environmental carcinogens, predominantly tobacco smoke.At least 12 different cell types of tumors are included under the broad heading of lung cancer. For clinical and therapeutic reasons however, lung cancers are frequently classified as small cell cancers and non small cancers. McCance & Huether (2002:1136-1139), outline these neoplasms as follows.Non-Small Cell Lung CancerNSCLC account for 75 per-cent of all lung cancers, they affect the cells that line the main bronchi. Some of the different types of non-small cancer include squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma.Squamous cell carcinomaSquamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 30 per-cent of bronchogenic carcinomas. Almost always associated with smoking, their growth rate is slow and metastasis is late. The means of diagnosis includes biopsy, sputum analysis, bronchoscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Typical symptoms include cough, sputum production, and airway obstruction. The preferred treatment is surgical resection, although after metastasis has taken place, total surgical resection is difficult and survival rates dramatically decrease. Although chemotherapy has limited effectiveness, adjuvant treatment with newer agents has been shown to improve survival and quality of life.AdenocarcinomaAdenocarcinoma tumors arise from the bronchial glands and are the most frequent type to start in the outer region of the lungs. When a lifelong non-smoker develops lung cancer, it is usually of this type. It comprises about 35 percent of all bronchogenic carcinomas and is characterized by moderate growth rate and early metastasis. The tumors are usually smaller than 4 cm and may be asymptomatic, or cause chest pain and shortness of breath. Surgical resection is possible in a high proportion of cases, but because metastasis occurs early, the 5 years survival rate...

Find Another Essay On Discuss the different neoplasms which may arise in the lung. Discuss their staging and grading with regard to prognosis and treatment. Are there any promising new treatment modalities?

Discuss the treatment of female alienation as it is presented in The Colour Purple by Alice Walker and Behind A Mask by Louisa May Alcott

1678 words - 7 pages Alienation is when an individual is estranged from their traditional community or made to feel different by others in general. The alienation of women is a key issue to bear in mind when discussing any texts which can be interpreted as having some relevance to gender issues. The Color Purple and Behind a Mask are incredibly disparate in the way they treat the alienation of female characters, which is especially visible in the presentation of the

Discuss the treatment of cultural ‘collision’ and integration in Anita and Me and another text

2663 words - 11 pages line with the rest of the communal who do not accept them into their community. Phillips highlights the concept of the outsider becoming meaningless when there is no inside, suggesting that without a culture that embraces them as individuals, there is no feeling of belonging and acceptance. Phillips unstitches any mainstream culture in his novel, in doing so Phillips message to the reader is unstitching a fix of unity as culture is a strategy of

Discuss some ways in which statistics are used or misused in different Areas of Knowledge to assist and mislead us

1007 words - 4 pages description is really need to brief explain the situation. Before I went to IB school, I used to study in Chinese traditional school since when a child, each year of exam report card only present the grade that students got, if any one get lower score, parents will argue for them and claim them to work harder, but still didn't realize any problem with their kids. When I attended in the BWYA, the report card have been completely changed, each subject

The Responder's And Composer's Concpet Of Change May Coincide, Discuss With Relation To Three Specific Texts

1706 words - 7 pages "The composer's and the responder's concept of change in a particular issue may not always coincide- indeed they frequently seem not to." Do you agree? When considering such a proposition, it is vital to acknowledge the fact that both the composer and the responder bring their own experiences to the issues they are confronted with. Both parties draw upon past experiences and as a result both posses different concepts of change. However, whether

D.<Tab/>Making reference to theoretical perspectives with which you are familiar, discuss the construction of race and ethnicity in literary texts Othello and My Beautiful Laundrette

2198 words - 9 pages ) also emphasize the idea that there will be a future between the two lovers. Despite the difficulties their racial differences may present, they appear to end up ‘healing the split that originates in the very foundation of our lives, our culture, our language, our thoughts’ (Anzaldua: 2214).The construction of race and ethnicity is approached from a different perspective in Othello by William Shakespeare. In the Elizabethan period, so

Discuss the extent to which Vianne Rocher and Francis Reynaud are outsiders in the novel "Chocolat" written by Joanne Harris

772 words - 3 pages and the village people ignore her and her daughter and Reynaud tries to stop the village people from accepting her as one of their own.The extent to which Vianne Rocher is an outsider is that she has just moved from America " we are going to start a new life from New York..." (Chapter:1, page:11) ,and she also has to remind her daughter Anouk to speak French "I have to remind her to speak French..."(page:12) which immediately tells you that they

Treatment of a Thick Mucus Found in the Lung

1076 words - 5 pages children, because it is an ordinary activity that they can do with their friends and that makes them feel normal. Inhalation therapy Inhalation therapy consists in administrating medicine via inhalation because it gets in the airways quickly and easily. It can be prescribed as a part of the daily therapy. There are different types of medications inhaled: • Bronchodilators (to open the airways) • Expectorants (to clear mucus

Different areas of the brain are specialised in their functions. Discuss

1764 words - 7 pages be investigated in more detail.The brain is made up of two hemispheres, left and right. Each hemisphere is further divided into four lobes, which two are thought to be specialised in their function. The frontal lobe is thought to be primarily concerned with cognitive and motor functions. The parietal lobe is considered to be the sensory processor and processes space, the temporal lobe is associated with memory and the occipital lobe is where

Promising Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease

1639 words - 7 pages lysine residue, resulting in chromatin activation(13, 15) and histone deacetylases(HDAC), which remove acetyl group and linked to chromatin inactivation(14, 16). This relaxes the chromatin structure and allows transcription factors to interact with their target DNA.(10) Histone acetylation is an important mechanism for memory formation.(17, 18) Recent studies suggest that specific HATs and HDACs are required for memory formation and learning

Discuss the ways in which gender and race intersect with each other. Make reference to the film "Falling Down."

2595 words - 10 pages feminism is embodied in white/western culture and that there are incommensurable differences between women resulting from their position as racialized subjects. These arguments will be analyzed and discussed within this essay to further strengthen the argument that femininity is culturally specific. Ang's example of American women's reactions to the artist Madonna's sexualized performativity will be analyzed and discussed as an example of the

Discuss Crane's treatment of nature in The Red Badge of Courage and Henry's shifting attitudes towards it

798 words - 3 pages in the first four chapters, thus giving nature a military connotation. Tents "[spring up] like strange plants. Camp fires, like red, peculiar blossoms, [dot] the night". The shells "[look] to be strange war flowers bursting into fierce bloom". Crane goes as far as to name war itself "the red animal". During battle, the skirmishers are "firing at the landscape" and their bullets fly "into thickets and at distant and prominent trees". The enemy is

Similar Essays

In The Novel "Perfume", Discuss How Patrick Suskind Tells A Story In Which There Are No Relationships Of Any Strength, And No Dialogue Of Any Length

860 words - 3 pages described in a very gloomy mood. Throughout the initial stages, Suskind teases the audience with several near death events, but ultimately, he is rescued on multiple occasions. The basic characteristics of Jean-Baptiste are rather unique, as he is unable to produce any odor of his own, but has incredible smelling senses. This aspect of his tends to draw many uncompromising complications. He is seen as someone who is evil, possessed by demons and has

There Are Different Strategies In The Global Marketplace. Identify Them And Discuss At Least Two In Depth. Analyse Examples Of Companies Which Have Successfully Applied Them

2021 words - 8 pages buying offices around the world whose prime purpose is to identify potential suppliers. Designers at headquarters then review these to decide which would provide what for each of the products, their overall aim being to design for low cost and ease of manufacture.Conclusions:Different global companies seek success in different strategies. As the global market develops the companies will be intensively looking for new methods of reaching

The Use Of Telomerase In Diagnosis, Prognosis, And Treatment Of Cancer: With A Special Look At Breast Cancer

2613 words - 10 pages their accelerated division and growth without death, however there are many other factors helping to drive cancer cells.During the process of learning about the telomerase's role in cancer, I personally sifted through many different sources of information. Before researching in detail, I understood the role telomerase played in the life cycle of cells. The questions that arose in my head dealt with how exactly telomerase could be used to battle

Turner's Syndrome: Symptoms, Treatment, And Prognosis

1330 words - 5 pages are expressed in a phenotypic manner, it is very easy to detect an individual with the syndrome. There are three cardinal features that individuals with Turner syndrome have.First, because Turner is the syndrome in which there is an absence of a sex chromosome, the carriers severely lack their sexual development. This results in underdeveloped ovaries and little amounts of sex hormones. Because the sex hormones are what triggers all other