Diabetes Insipidus is the less known form of diabetes. It is often accompanied by excess urine outflow, intake of fluid, and an increased thirst. Bedwetting due to lack of control and frequency, and an unusual concentration of urine is included. There are four types of DI, and each are completely different in treatment and causes. Most commonly, the cause is the lack of vasopressin, which concentrates urine to reduce its output. It is called pituitary DI because it is usually caused by the destruction of the back of the pituitary gland. It cannot be cured, but drugs can help with symptoms. Gestational DI is caused by pregnancy and usually disappears a few weeks after delivery. The placenta uses the vasopressin too fast and causes it. The symptoms are repressed the same way as pituitary DI. The third type of DI is caused by the kidneys inability to respond to the effects of vasopressin, called nephrogenic DI. It is resulted from drugs against kidney diseases, and could (or could not) be cured only by eliminating the drug or disease. Drugs can be prescribed to alleviate some of the symptoms. The fourth, primary polydipsia, is caused by excessive intake of fluids and has two subcategories. Dipsogenic DI is most common and usually associated with an abnormality in the brain that regulates thirst. Psychogenic polydipsia is caused by psychosomatic issues. Neither one can be completely treated.
Pituitary dwarfism has no set cause. There are many factors that can cause it, including brain tumors or could be present at birth, but not passed through parent to child. Symptoms of pituitary dwarfism include an extremely slow growth rate, or a flat growth rate. They are shorter than most children of their age though correctly proportioned, and in older children, they may not go through puberty. The best ‘treatment’ is merely moral support for the children because they are usually teased by their peers. Actual treatment is growth hormone injections that rarely have serious side effects. These treatments add quite a few inches to their stature.
Pituitary gigantism happens in children, before the growth plates fuse. Accelerated growth rates are seen, just the opposite of dwarfism. There is little bone deformity, but swelling of the soft tissue occurs, along with enlargement of the peripheral nerves. The pituitary gland secretes too much growth hormone, normally because of a tumor. Treatments include radiation or surgery. Radiation may not take right away, and most often surgery accompanies it.
Acromegaly is very similar to pituitary gigantism simply because it is the same thing, just in adults. All the bones that keep growing (i.e. feet, hands, nose) as you age are effected. The growth hormone is produced without being inhibited due to tumors and is taken out by surgery and/or radiation. Related symptoms include headaches, excessive sweating, and joint pain.
Cushing syndrome is associated with high levels of cortisol. Reasons for these high levels include...