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Dissociative Identity Disorder Essay

1911 words - 8 pages

History
Over the years, people with Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) have thought to be possessed with demons this diagnosis continued well into the nineteenth century and is still a common misdiagnosis in some parts of the world today. Starting in the eighteenth century the possession theory started to die down and the first case of DID was found by Eberhardt Gmelin in 1791 a German Doctor. In America in 1815, Mary Reynolds was discovered as having multiple personalities (Coons, 2011 p 3).
The first studied case of DID was by Pierre Janet in 1883. Janet patient was a 45-year-old woman who had three different personalities her name was Leonie. Leonie had one personality that knew of the other two this is known as the host. The personalities were able to control the body at different times and Leonie remembered nothing of these missing times. The one personality would take over, take Leonie to another place, and let her take back over and she would have a panic attack not know where she was. (Manning & Manning, 2011 p 7). Janet took the case of Leonie to other big names in Psychology such as Jean-Martin Charcot, Frederick Myers, and Charles Richet; these men reviewed the case and agreed with Janet findings. Janet described the splitting of personalities as the process of the splitting of consciousness as disaggregation. Disaggregation was later translated in English to dissociation. He described the personality splits as successive existences that he thought was capable of having an independent identity and be able to lead a different live. Janet believed that this split was caused by real trauma in Leonie life. He believed to treat the disorder that he needed to bring to consciousness the split of memories and emotions and resolve them with therapy (Manning & Manning, 2011 p.9).
Others in Europe were publishing papers on Multiple Personality such as Alfred Binet (of IQ testing fame) who published On Double-Consciousness in 1890 and Alterations of Personality in 1896(Manning & Manning,2011 p 8). In 1895, Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud published their book Studies on Hysteria, this book is on multiple women presenting with hysteria, they showed signs of dissociative and most of them had been sexually abused. The most famous patient was Anna O; Breuer wrote that she had Multiple Personality, with two dominate personalities. Anna O first personality was sweet and harmless, the second personality was mean and threw things at people, and she had one personality that was just in the corner of her mind and watched what was going on (Manning & Manning, 2011 p 12-3).
In the United States Morton Prince in 1896 published, The Dissociation of a Personality, which was about a woman named Miss Beauchamp. Miss Beauchamp was a woman who showed four distinct personalities. Prince founded Journal of Abnormal Psychology a year later and the first article in print was Janet paper on Multiple personality disorder concerning Leonie ordeal (Manning & Manning,...

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