Mangroves have different economic benefits. Nowadays, destruction of mangrove forest is very alarming. During the year 1918, mangroves forest is about 500, 000 hectares wide. In the Philippines, from the estimated 448, 000 hectares in 1920’s have been declined to 110, 000 hectares in the year 1990 and it reached 130, 000 hectares by the year 2000, as stated by Lunar and Laguardia (2012). Human anthropogenic activities such as conversion of mangroves into fishpond, shrimp farm, salt ponds, renovation and other forms of developing industries reduces the mangrove areas. The continuous reduction of mangrove forest have been used as different kind of materials like charcoal or for fire wood production, house materials and converting these mangrove forest into fish ponds establishment and in addition the expansion of coastal communities (Becira, 2006).
According to Upadhyay et al., (2002), mangrove ecosystems have many ecological importances for maintaining marine life. Mangrove ecosystems are being studied with more interest worldwide because of their economic importance in support of commercial fisheries alone (Cintron et al. 1980). Uses and values of mangroves are many and varied. For example, they provide habitat as well as spawning and nursery ground for various marine species like fish, shellfish, crustaceans and other marine organisms, enrich the near-shore environment, act as windbreakers and protects the shoreline from storms, stabilize the shoreline, and decrease coastal erosion (Nayak & Bahuguna,
Mangrove is a tree, shrub, palm or ground fern, normally grows above mean sea level in the intertidal zone marine environment and estuaries living on the edge. This species is indeed different from some other land plants; it occupies a zone of dehydrating heat, choking mud and salt levels that can sometime harm the ordinary plants (Mangrove, 2013). Mangroves are trees that live in most saline environment and grow in intertidal zone or estuaries in tropical and subtropical countries, buffers between the land and the sea. They are capable of thriving in harsh environmental conditions and they are able to share unique features such as their leaves can excrete salts, exposed roots for their breathing, and production of propagules, a vegetative portion of the mangrove plant that aids in developing their new kind of species.
There are 15.9 million hectares (over 60,000 square miles) of mangrove forests in the warm waters of tropical oceans all over the world. Along the Atlantic coast they are found from Florida all the way down to Argentina. Mangroves grow on both the western and eastern coasts of Africa. They stretch into India, Burma, and south-east Asia. Mangrove forests are also common in New Zealand and Australia. (Mangrove Forest, 2002)
It grows well in tropical countries, including the Philippines. Mangroves are an important part of the coastal and marine ecosystem that includes the seagrass and the coral reefs. Of the...