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Do Nanoliposomes/Chitosan Blend Scaffolds Have Cyto Friendly Architectures For Mesenchymal Stem Cells Culture?

1913 words - 8 pages

Chitosan thin films, elaborated by solvent casting, have been functionalized by incorporate nanoliposomes based on natural vegetable and marine lecithin. The physical-chemistry properties were characterized by water contact angle, swelling kinetic test, and Torsional Harmonic Atomic Force Microscopy analysis (TH–AFM). The surface wettability, swelling ratio, roughness and local stiffness of the chitosan thin films can be modifiedand controlled by adding of nanoliposomes. The water contact angle decreases from 75° (±2°) to 50° (±1°) and 38° (±1°) when the amount of soya and salmon nanoliposomes increased in chitosan films, respectively.At the same time, the films attain equilibrium state ...view middle of the document...

The endothelial, stem cells and neo-tissue (including skin, muscle, cartilage, bone marrow) could be created in vitro and subsequently implanted into the patient or entirely in vivo. A reasonable replaced scaffold should assist cell proliferation and differentiation, enable diffusion of vital cell nutrients and expressed products, and provide adequate mechanical and biological properties 2. Compared to other synthetic polymer, natural polymer materials offer advantages such as the creation of new opportunities for mimicking the tissue microenvironment and can stimulate the appropriate physiological responses required for cellular regeneration 3,4. Numerous studies showed that chitosan-based biomaterials have been widely investigated for tissue engineering applications involving myocardium 5,6, skin 7, or liver regeneration8.

Chitosan is prepared from one of the most widespread natural biopolymer, chitin, derived from the exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crab and shrimp 9. Its glycosaminoglycan similar structure makes it a potential candidate for connective tissue engineering. Moreover, the primary amino group makes it possible to be further physically or chemically modified 10. In many physiological situations, chitosan can be protonated and become positively-charged 11. The protonation usually occurs in acidic environments in vitro and in vivo, and increases itssolubility 12,13. Protonated chitosan can form a complex with many types of anionic molecules, such as growth factors, nucleic acids, and cytokines14–16. These native molecules can be protected from degradation by surrounding environments, at the same time these bioactive factors increase local concentration and efficacy with the help of chitosan 17–21. Moreover, these native active agents could enforce physicochemical, biological and even mechanical properties of chitosan. In many studies, certain biological information (such as lecithin, phospholipids, and special amino acid sequence) contained in natural materials could promote cell adhesion or maintain the ability of cell differentiation 22–25.

Since the first description of liposomes by Bangham in 20th century 60ies26,27, they were known as new agent/drug carriers, able to achieve selective localization of active drug in disease sites such as tumors28 and inflammation sites29. Though, they are not only able to increase the in vivo drug stability and bioavailability by preventing interactions of the transported drug with unwanted molecules, and reducing toxic side effects30; at the same time, they could offer the extra advantages of low toxicity, more surface areas, biocompatibility, and biodegradability31,32. Some studies showed that nanoliposomes based on vegetable and marine lecithin improve cell culture conditions depending on their concentration 33,34. Moreover, these particles can be used to encapsulate hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive molecules without using organic solvent, reducing inflammatory risk and cell...

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