Numerous studies all over the world have made assumptions about the academic performance of students staying on campus in residences and those who travel to campus every day. Some studies suggest that those students who live in campus residences tend to have an advantage over those who don’t (Peterson, 1975). The following review based in related literature will strive to be as thorough as possible about the chosen topic and problems.
A study done by the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) on 1st year students found that for the majority of students in most institutions the type of residence does not have a significant effect on academic performance. However, it was noticed that Black students who live on campus have a higher GPA than similar students at the same institution who live off campus with their family (NCES, 2011).
A. Existing Theory
Peterson (1975) suggested that those students involved in activities on campus and at residences have a greater wealth of benefits than those who don’t. According to Peterson (1975, p. 2) these students are better off economically and academically because of the growth and development they experience through these activities.
Tinto (1993) developed a theory, which suggested that the integration, both academically and socially, influenced the amount of commitment a student exuded towards the implied institution. Tinto‘s theory (1993) also suggests that students first must separate from the group with which they were formerly associated, such as family members and high school peers, and undergo a period of transition in which time the person will learn to interrelate with members of the new environment and group in new ways and to incorporate or assume the values and behaviours of the new group or college. According to Tinto (1993), academic and social integration are complementary but independent processes by which students adapt to college life through the participating of available activities.
Braxton, Sullivan and Johnson (1997) however, disputed some of this and argued against the methodology used by Tinto. For instance they found that there is no descriptive proof that integration into university/college life, will lead to better academic achievement.
Student engagement or the extents to which they participate in activities are key factors to the successful integration into college (Chickering & Gamson, 1987). In the publication, Seven principles of good practice for undergraduate education, Chickering and Gamson (1987) underscored seven categories of effective educational practises, which are student-faculty contact, cooperation among students, active learning, prompt feedback, time on task, high expectations, and respect for diverse talents and ways of learning. The overall scores of studies over decades indicates that student engagement in activities benefit all types of students in different degree fields. The positive interaction with activities creates the needed...