Domains Of An It Infrustructure Essay

983 words - 4 pages

5 steps of Hacking:Phase 1: Passive and Active ReconnaissancePassive reconnaissance involves gathering information regarding a potential target without the targeted individual's or company's knowledge. Passive reconnaissance can be as simple as watching a building to identify what time employees enter the building and when they leave. However, it's usually done using Internet searches or by Googling an individual or company to gain information. This process is generally called information gathering. Social engineering and dumpster diving are also considered passive information-gathering methods.Sniffing the network is another means of passive reconnaissance and can yield useful information such as IP address ranges, naming conventions, hidden servers or networks, and other available services on the system or network. Sniffing network traffic is similar to building monitoring: A hacker watches the flow of data to see what time certain transactions take place and where the traffic is going.Active reconnaissance involves probing the network to discover individual hosts, IP addresses, and services on the network. This usually involves more risk of detection than passive reconnaissance and is sometimes called rattling the doorknobs. Active reconnaissance can give a hacker an indication of security measures in place (is the front door locked?), but the process also increases the chance of being caught or at least raising suspicion.Both passive and active reconnaissance can lead to the discovery of useful information to use in an attack. For example, it's usually easy to find the type of web server and the operating system (OS) version number that a company is using. This information may enable a hacker to find a vulnerability in that OS version and exploit the vulnerability to gain more access.Phase 2: ScanningScanning involves taking the information discovered during reconnaissance and using it to examine the network. Tools that a hacker may employ during the scanning phase can include dialers, port scanners, network mappers, sweepers, and vulnerability scanners. Hackers are seeking any information that can help them perpetrate attack such as computer names, IP addresses, and user accounts.Phase 3: Gaining AccessThis is the phase where the real hacking takes place. Vulnerabilities discovered during the reconnaissance and scanning phase are now exploited to gain access. The method of connection the hacker uses for an exploit can be a local area network (LAN, either wired or wireless), local access to a PC, the Internet, or offline. Examples include stack-based buffer overflows, denial of service (DoS), and session hijacking. These topics will be discussed in later chapters. Gaining access is known in the hacker world as owning the system.Phase 4: Maintaining AccessOnce a hacker has gained access, they want to keep that access for future exploitation and attacks. Sometimes, hackers harden the system from other hackers or security personnel by securing...

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