Dorthea Elizabeth Orem’s Nursing Theory as it Applies to Patients With End Stage Renal Disease and Hemodialysis Treatment
According to the Healthy People Database, in 2010 the aging population was estimated at 40 million, this number is expected rise to nearly 70 million by the year 2030 (National Center for Health Statistics, 2000). At the forefront of health concerns for this aging population will be the intervention, management and treatment of chronic diseases. This increase in both this specific population as well as the required medical care will place a significant amount of stress on an already distressed healthcare system, which in turn will affect the availability of recourses and costs. Including patients in their self care with strategic health promotion such as encouragement and education geared towards specific socioeconomic groups will be more cost effective and beneficial in the management of chronic disease. Studies indicate that patients involved in self management of disease processes often have better patient outcomes.
Obesity has become a very critical problem in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2011) in the past two decades there has been an increasingly dramatic increase in obesity seen within the United States. Evidence from research indicate a strong correlation between being over-weight or obese with incidences of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancers increases (CDC, 2011). A major complication associated with diabetes is the occurrence of nephropathy which can lead to end stage renal disease (ESRD).
Complications related to diabetes and nephropathy are said to account for 50% of new cases of end stage renal disease (ESRD) (U.S. Renal Data System, 2008). With the growing population of those at risk for ESRD the need for medical and nursing intervention will continue to rise.
Orem’s Self-Care Theory
Dorthea Elizabeth Orem modeled her theory on the belief that people have the innate ability, right and responsibility to care for themselves and that nurses should focus on affecting that ability (Orem, 1995). According Orems self-care theory individuals whose needs for self care outweigh their ability to engage in self care are said to be in a self care deficit (Isenberg, 2006). The theory of self-care deficit is the core of Orem's general theory of nursing because it defines when nursing is needed. Nursing is required when an adult is incapable of or limited in the provision of continuous effective self-care. Nursing can be provided if the abilities to perform self-care for a particular demand are not met (Graham, 2006).
According to Orem's theory of self-care, hemodialysis patients must be able to perform self-care tasks in order to provide continuous effective care. Through vigorous research, it is apparent that Orem's theory of self-care seems to be the most applicable theory when utilizing self-care management in hemodialysis...