Dorothea Orem's Self Care Nursing Theory Analysis
The grand theory to be analyzed in this paper is Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory (SCDNT). The method used to analyze Dorothea Orem’s theory is Walker and Avant Theory Analysis (WAT). Theory analysis is a process of evaluating a nursing theory. The WAT is comprised of seven steps. The steps are defining the origins, meaning, logic, usefulness, details, structure and testability of the theory (McEwen & Wills, 2011). “Critical reflection of a theory determines how well the theory serves its purpose” (McEwen & Wills, 2011, p.95). Therefore, a critical reflection will be applied to the SCDNT. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and critique the SCDNT using the WAT method of theory analysis.
Origins of the Theory
The origins of the SCDNT began when Dorothea was asked to write the nursing curriculum for the Department of Health, Education and Welfare in Washington, DC. She along with other colleagues began the process for creating the curriculum and during this time the SCDNT began to develop. She published her first book on nursing theory in 1971 (McEwen & Wills, 2011). Also, she mentions that there was no particular theorist she based her theory (McEwen & Wills, 2011).
Meaning of the Theory
There are three primary concepts in the SCDNT. The concepts are self-care, self-care deficit and nursing systems (McEwen & Wills, 2011). In addition, authors McEwen and Willis breaks down Orem’s self-care theory with several requisites. They are universal, developmental, health deviation and therapeutic (McEwen & Wills, 2011). Plus, concepts of deliberated action and product of nursing are defined.
The definition of self-care according to Orem is a human function that is a deliberate action to supply any necessary materials needed for life, growth, development and the maintenance of human integrity (McEwen & Wills, 2011).
Self-care defined by Orem accepts that all individuals have self-care needs and they have the right to meet these needs until they are unable due to circumstances (Pearson, 2008). Universal self-care is defined as being common to all humans (McEwen & Wills, 2011). Sufficient intake of air, water and food are examples of universal self-care requisites. Plus, the relationship between activity and rest, and solitude and social interaction are under the universal definition (Pearson, 2008). Development self-care maintains that self-care is necessary for human growth and development (McEwen & Wills, 2011). In addition, health deviation self-care is defined as self-care associated with health deficits (McEwen & Wills, 2011). The ability for the nurse to assist a patient fulfill therapeutic patient care needs as a result of him or her unable to fulfill them on their own is defined as therapeutic self-care (McEwen & Wills, 2011). A deliberate action is known as an action that has a specific motivation or sought outcome (McEwen & Wills,...