Down Syndrome: An Intellectual and Developmental Disability
While researching exceptionalities in the textbook Educating Exceptional Children, I chose to research further into Down syndrome. It is one of the most common and easily identified exceptionality and based on the prevalence of Down syndrome I believe that this is one exceptionality I will
Identifying Down syndrome
Down syndrome is a genetic condition which can cause intellectual and developmental disabilities. Persons affected with Down syndrome have the common will have an additional chromosome; instead of 46, they have 47 chromosomes. Down syndrome occurs in about one in every 733 births, making it one of the most common birth defect (Cadsa). The physical traits shared by Down syndrome children and adults make this genetic defect easily recognizable. As described on the website, The Arc (2010), these physical traits may include flattening of the back of the head, eyelids that slant upwards and outwards, small skin that folds at the inner corner of the eyes, flattened noses, small ears and a small mouth which will make the tongue seem large. Most will have decreased muscle tone, loose ligaments, small hands and feet, and overall, a smaller statue. There are two features that are not so recognizable and will affect fifty percent of those with Down syndrome; one line across the palm, and a big space between the first and second toes. Like most exceptionalities, not every child will have all of the physical characteristics described and may only show evidence of a few, yet others will exhibit the more severe attributes of Down syndrome. Physically and intellectually, children and adults with Down syndrome will have a broad spectrum of functionality. Typically, those affected with Down syndrome will develop behind those peers without this chromosomal abnormality (Arc).
While nothing done before or during a pregnancy can cause Down syndrome a diagnosis can be available as early as pregnancy. An amniocentesis performed by a medical professional can easily identify the chromosomal abnormality or after birth with a simple blood test performed on the newborn. The earlier a diagnosis is...