Down Syndrome By Ali Oterrab, Describes The Definition Of Down Syndrome, The Causes And The Symptoms.

684 words - 3 pages

Down Syndrome is a disorder caused by an extra chromosome on the chromosome 21 pair, giving the person a total of 47 chromosomes rather than the normal 46. This disorder results in mild to severe learning disabilities and physical symptoms including a small skull, extra folds of skin under the eyes, and a flattened nose bridge. The condition was formerly known as mongolism because the features of people with Down syndrome were thought to resemble those of Mongolian Asians but now this term is considered offensive and inappropriate so it's no longer used.Down syndrome happens when a person inherits all or part of an extra copy of chromosome 21. This can occur in a variety of ways, but the causes of it are unknown. The most common abnormality is Trisomy 21, a defect in which an extra, third copy of chromosome 21 is present in every cell in the body. The risk of Trisomy 21 is directly related to the age of the mother.Two other chromosomal abnormalities cause Down syndrome and occur in about 2 to 3 percent of all cases:Translocation, takes place when a child inherits a small extra piece of the 21st chromosome that is attached to another chromosome. If, in addition to the translocation, two normal 21st chromosomes are also present, the person will have some of the features of Down syndrome. If there is only one normal 21st chromosome, the person will not display symptoms but the children may inherit Down syndrome.Mosaic Down syndrome results from a second type of chromosomal abnormality in which only some cells in the body have an extra chromosome.There is no cure for Down syndrome. But there are tests before the baby is born that can identify if the baby will have Down syndrome. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends that the test called triple-screen blood test, to see if the baby has a Down syndrome, should be offered to all pregnant women. This test measures the levels of three chemicals in the blood of the pregnant woman to indicate the baby's risk of Down syndrome. If the risk is high, amniocentesis, a procedure for...

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