Drug-Resistant Organisms (DRO’s) are bacteria and other organisms that have developed a resistance to certain drugs. In other words, a particular dug is no longer able to kill or control a specific bacteria or organism. Other terms used to describe this situation include antibiotic resistance, antibacterial resistance and antimicrobial resistance. (Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 2003)
Sixty-six percent of patients with acute sinusitis grow at least 1 pathogenic bacterial species on sinus aspirates, while 26-30% percent of patients have multiple predominant bacterial species. The bacteria most commonly involved in acute sinusitis are part of the normal nasal flora. These bacteria can become sinus pathogens when they are deposited into the sinuses by sneezing, coughing, or direct invasion under conditions that optimize their growth. (Brook and Cunha, 2011)
The most common pathogens isolated from maxillary sinus cultures in patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis include Streptococcus pneumonia, Haemophilus influenza, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Streptococcus progenies, Staphylococcus aureus, and anaerobes are less commonly associated with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, they have been found in fewer than 10% of patients with acute bacterial sinusitis, despite the ample environment available for their growth. The exceptions are in sinusitis resulting from a dental source and in patients with chronic sinus disease, in whom anaerobic organisms are usually isolated. (Brook and Cunha, 2011)
The staphylococci are Gram-positive spherical cells, usually arranged in grapelike irregular clusters. The genus Staphylococcus has at least 40 species, which are separated in to two major groups on the basisof their ability to clog (coagulate) blood plasma by the action of staphylocoagules . The coagulase-
positive staphylococci (CoPS) include pathogenic species such as Staphycoccus aureus, while the coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) include species that are part of the normal flora of the skin in humans such as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Staphylococci are ubiquitous in the environment, and found as part of the normal flora in soil, water, skin and mucous membranes of humans and warm-blooded animals, and have been frequently isolated from a wide range of foodstuffs such as dairy products and meat . (Abulreesh, 2011)
The coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of various community and hospital acquired infections. It causes skin and soft tissues infections, surgical site infections, and bone and joint infections. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of hospital-acquired bacteraemia and it is associated with hospital-acquired respiratory tract infections [2, 4, 5]. It is important food-borne pathogen that usually associated with raw unpasteurized milk of dairy cattle suffering staphylococcal-associated mastitis [3, 6]. The nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy adults was reported to be...