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Drugs And Behaviour Essay

1217 words - 5 pages

Psych 143b-Tape#3a Issues and trends in Special Education We want to begin by defining special education and then we are going to consider some historical perspectives on this issue.Special Education- can be viewed as a planned intervention designed to prevent or reduce of conditions that may interfere with the psychological functioning of the student. S.E.-was founded on the assumption that all children can reach their full potential, given the opportunity, given affective teaching and given the proper resources. S.E. was originally designed for children who were considered inappropriate for public school instruction, children with physical sensory and social impairments. However, S.E. did not emerge as a distinct category within general education until the first part of the 20th century. Although the specific category of S.E. is a relatively recent occurrence, many of the ideas underlying the care and education of exceptional children originated at earlier times. What we are going to do now is consider some of these earlier perspectives.More Ancient or Primitive Societies In most primitive societies, survival represented the major obstacle facing the individual with an exceptional condition. The oldest accounts of medical intervention with individuals with exceptional conditions come from Ancient Egypt and date from about 1500 years BCE.In Ancient Greece human exceptionality was considered from both the medical and the philosophical points of view. Egyptian ideas considering medical interventions were later adopted by those interested in the etiology and medical treatment of conditions such as deafness, visual impairment, and mental retardation. Philosophers directed their attention towards sensory impairments concluding that deafness was more intellectually disabling than blindness and concluding that the deaf therefore were incapable of reasoning and unteachable. Apart from medical and philosophical interests in human exceptionality the treatment of exceptional individuals was typically quite harsh in both Greece and Rome. Newborn infants were routinely scrutinized for their fitness for survival and children with disabilities were often either allowed to perish or were deliberately killed. Those exceptional individuals who survived beyond infancy were routinely deprived of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.Hebrew law represented a more advanced way of thinking about individuals with exceptional conditions, who along with orphans the needy were meant to be treated with special consideration. The next Historical Perspective to consider is the perspective from the middle ages Perspective From the Middle Ages -from the 1st century after Christ to the 1500 during this time there are few references and reports about exceptional individuals. In general, superstition and myth regarding human exceptionality prevailed throughout the time. For most individuals with exceptional conditions, life was categorized by ignorance and mistreatment....

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