Dual–coding and Mnemonic research.
By Rachele Righetto.
This assignment discussed mnemonics and how images act as a mnemonic device to recall memories in a psychological way. The psychological approach I will be dealing with is the cognitive school founded by Miller in the 1960’s. This is where you find out how people work, how the processes go through their mind and it takes into account the internal, invisible thought processes that affect our behaviour. It involves perception, attention, language, memory, thinking and consciousness.
Memory and mnemonics is the main focus to this research. Memory is where we are able to retain and retrieve events that have happened in the past.
There are 3 memory stores; sensory, short-term and long-term memory. Sensory memory is the first stage in which our brain receives information from our senses and is stored for less than a second before getting passed onto the STM and LTM. These senses include sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. This information then gets passed on to the short term memory.
The short term memory (STM) is the next stage for storing information where the brain prefers to store the information acoustically. It can hold up to 7+/- 2 items, this is proven by Millar (1956) with his ‘magic number 7’ experiment, and can only hold them for a maximum of roughly 30 seconds unless maintained through rehearsal. Grouping items into chunks of 3 can enhance the capacity of the Short term memory especially if the chunks are meaningful to the individual. Peterson and Peterson (1959) investigated in the duration of the STM when rehearsal was not allowed. They found that without rehearsal, duration of STM is less than 18 seconds. Information held in the STM is quickly lost without rehearsal. This supports the hypothesis that the duration of the STM is limited to approximately 20 seconds.
Long term memory (LTM) is a permanent store which can hold an unlimited capacity and duration. Information is passed to the LTM from the STM through encoding. Baddeley (1966) did an experiment on LTM encoding where he presented lists of 10 short words at one time. Some lists where semantically similar and others where not.
The participants were asked to recall the words immediately and after a 20 minute delay. So he found that after immediate recall, participants with the acoustically similar words got confused, but those with semantically similar words did not and were better at the task. This suggests LTM is confused by the similarity which means that this is how LTM tends to encode.
There are 3 types of long term memories;
Episodic, semantic and procedural.
Procedural memory is a part of the long-term memory is responsible for knowing how to do things.
Semantic memory is a part of the long-term memory responsible for storing information about the world. This includes knowledge about the meaning of...