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Dutch Perception Of Muslim Women In The Netherlands

2199 words - 9 pages

An increasing number of research shows that the in group/ out-group relationship between helper and the recipient of assistance (the “helpee”) plays a crucial role in helping (Omoto & Snyder, 2002). Recent research has indicated that people help in-group members not necessarily more than they help out-group members (Saucier, Miller, & Doucet, 2005). However, it has been have been suggested that the reasons for helping out-group members as opposed to in-group members differ substantially (Stürmer et al., 2006). For instance, the significance of perceived self-other similarity and the common bond with the out-group members is an important factor intergroup helping (e.g., Levine et al., 2005). To the extent that people recognize aspects of themselves in the other, the other’s welfare becomes of immediate self-relevance. Especially, when in-group/out-group differences are salient, perceived self-other dissimilarities is likely to invoke negative emotions, such as feelings of anxiety, insecurity, or threat (Pryor et al., 2004). A recent study conducted with German and Muslim participants has indicated that when the target was characterized as an in-group members (similar cultural background), participants showed higher empathic reactions and helping intentions than when the target was an out-group member (different cultural background) (Stürmer et al., 2006).
So far, it has been also well documented that relative group status of the individual who needs help appears influential in the potential helper’s decision to help or not to help (Saucier, McManus & Smith, 2010). Several theories such as the justification- suppression model of helping for the expression and experience prejudice (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003), and the arousal: cost-reward model of helping (Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark, 1981). In the current social system which prohibits overt expression of prejudice, individuals started to show a contemporary form of prejudice. According to justification-correction model (Crandall & Eshleman, 2003), the level of individual’s actual level of negativity toward another social group called “genuine prejudice” is affected by both justification and suppression factors before expression. Therefore, final form of genuine prejudice, “expressed prejudice” toward other groups might bear a little resembles to the actual level (Saucier et al., 2009) and can be expressed in different situations in different forms.
Moreover, the cost-reward model of helping states that the choice of action depends on the helper’s assessment of the relative costs of helping and costs of not helping in the situation. The costs of helping would include many factors such as the time, risk, and effort involved in helping whereas the costs of not helping would include the level of emergency for the person needing help and the negative feelings that the potential helpers would feel if they chose not to help, such as guilt and regret (Piliavin, Dovidio, Gaertner, & Clark,...

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