This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Dysarthria And Aphasia Essay

1901 words - 8 pages

Dysarthria and Aphasia

Definition

Dysarthrias or commonly known as Dysarthria, refers to a group of
speech problems where sounds may be slurred, and speech may be slow or
effortful. Noticeable changes in pitch, volume, and tempo of speech
occur. Speech can become nasal, and the voice can sound either breathy
or harsh.
Dysarthria occurs in both children and adults. Yorkston, Strand,
Miller, Hillel, and Smith (1993) found reduction in speaking rate to
be the strongest predictor of decrease in speech intelligibility.

Etiology

Dysarthria is related to neuromuscular diseases such as cerebral
palsy, Parkinson's, Lou Gehrig's disease, or later stages of multiple
sclerosis. It can also occur from stroke, brain injury, and tumors.
The exact speech problem that occurs depends on the part of the
nervous system that is affected. Degenerative disease due to the
effects of upper and lower motor neuron changes; the speech of
individuals with ALS is classified as mixed (spastic and flaccid)
dysarthria (Duffy, 1995).

A number of subsystems must work together, for speech to be clear. A
weakness in any of the systems or lack of coordination between systems
can result in dysarthria.

If the respiratory subsystem is fragile, then speech may be quiet and
formed one word at a time. If the laryngeal system is weak, speech may
be breathy, too quiet and slow. If the velopharyngeal subsystem is not
working, speech may sound too nasal or nasal sounds may be missing. If
the articulatory subsystem is not working, speech may sound slurred,
may have many errors and may be slow and labored.
Treatment

Treatment varies depending on the source, category, and intensity of
the problem. The main objective of treatment by a speech-language
pathologist is to help a person be able to communicate as clearly and
efficiently as possible. Treatment may involve teaching a person ways
to compensate for restrictions in muscle movement by techniques such
as talking in short sentences or emphasizing key sounds in words.
Changes in positioning of the body also may increase clearness.
For some people, speech is not a viable option. Substitutes or
augmentative systems are frequently used.As speech intelligibility
begins to decline, intervention focuses on maintaining functional
communication versus attempting to reduce speech impairment (Yorkston,
Miller, & Strand, 1995). Direct speech intervention is not recommended
for a number of reasons. First, exercise to fatigue may hasten
neurological deterioration. Speech drills may be so tiring that speech
adequacy for functional use in other settings would be compromised.
Finally, speech exercises emphasizing optimum performance can only
prove to be a discouraging reminder of increasing loss of ability.

Therapy for dysarthria focuses on maximizing the...

Find Another Essay On Dysarthria and Aphasia

A Traumtic Brain Injury Essay

2629 words - 11 pages language impairment, according to IDEA, have “Language processing and usage challenges” difficulties. This is one of the main characteristics of people who suffered a Traumatic Brain Injury as well as people who have a Speech or Language Impairment. People with either types of disability can have trouble with the following disorders: Aphasia, Apraxia, Dysarthria, Agnosia, Anomia, or Dysphonia. Aphasia is a language disorder based on difficulties

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Essay

2937 words - 12 pages 2 kyphosis due to axial weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia are mostly typical of bulbar type ALS. Weak coughs, morning headaches, pain due to contractures, immobility and bed sores, shortness of breath are mixed sensory and motor findings that lead to depression and anxiety in some cases (Sreedharan & Brown

Acquired Apraxia of Soeech

1785 words - 8 pages cerebrovascular accident also known as a stroke (Duffy, 2013). AOS can also result from a traumatic brain/head injury, a brain tumor, or other illness that affects the brain. AOS is the result of cortical and/or subcortical damage/lesion to the left hemisphere of the brain (McNeil, Robin, & Schmidt, 2009). A person with acquired apraxia of speech may also have dysarthria; a motor execution disorder or aphasia; a language disorder, since these disorders

Reaching Students With Learning Disabilities

1621 words - 6 pages objects and pictures Start sentences to let the student finish them Give visual clues when speaking to the student Decrease frustration by avoiding finishing the student’s for them Dysphasia-(also known as Aphasia) A language disorder, evolving from environmental forces, evident by a student’s high level of inadequacy in reading comprehension and outstanding struggles when speaking. Characteristics Trouble speaking to relay meaning in an

The importance of Effective Communication in Health-Care

2065 words - 8 pages ) ‘Being appropriately unusual’ a challenge for nurses in health-promoting conversations with families. Nursing Inquiry15: 106–115. Bowen, A., Hesketh, A., Patchick, E., Young, A., Davies, L., Vail, A., ... & Tyrrell, P. (2012). Effectiveness of enhanced communication therapy in the first four months after stroke for aphasia and dysarthria: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 345. Casey, A., & Wallis, A. (2011

When the Bubble Burst

1539 words - 6 pages By the time I arrived state side from my second tour in the Middle East the housing bubble had already burst. I noticed a drastic change in the way that many of my friends and family were living. Several of my friends that worked in real estate had sold their boats and seconds houses. My own stock portfolio had lost a third of its value. My sister and her husband had defaulted on their home mortgage leaving them scrambling for a place to live. I

phase diagram

4456 words - 18 pages Introduction: Chemical equilibrium is a crucial topic in Chemistry. To represent and model equilibrium, the thermodynamic concept of Free energy is usually used. For a multi-component system the Gibbs free energy is a function of Pressure, Temperature and quantity (mass, moles) of each component. If one of these parameters is changed, a state change to a more energetically favorable state will occur. This state has the lowest free energy

Revolutionary Work of Art

1890 words - 8 pages Walter Benjamin emphasizes in his essay, “The Work of Art in the Age of its Technological Reproducibility” that technology used to make an artwork has changed the way it was received, and its “aura”. Aura represents the originality and authenticity of a work of art that has not been reproduced. The Sistine Chapel in the Vatican is an example of a work that has been and truly a beacon of art. It has brought a benefit and enlightenment to the art

Enlightenment Thought in New Zealand Schools

1594 words - 6 pages In this essay I will be looking at how the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment have shaped New Zealand Education. I will also be discussing the perennial tension of local control versus central control of education, and how this has been affected by the political and intellectual ideas of the enlightenment. The enlightenment was an intellectual movement, which beginnings of were marked by the Glorious Revolution in Britain

Psychological Egoism Theory

2240 words - 9 pages The theory of psychological egoism is indeed plausible. The meaning of plausible in the context of this paper refers to the validity or the conceivability of the theory in question, to explain the nature and motivation of human behavior (Hinman, 2007). Human actions are motivated by the satisfaction obtained after completing a task that they are involved in. For example, Mother Teresa was satisfied by her benevolent actions and

How Celtic Folkore has Influenced My Family

1587 words - 6 pages Every family has a unique background that influences the way they live and interact with other people. My parents, who emigrated from Ireland to the States with my three brothers in 1989, brought over their own Celtic folklore and traditions that have helped shaped the way our family operates and lives. One aspect of folklore that has helped shape my family dynamic is the Celtic cross—both its background and what role it has played in our lives

Similar Essays

Understanding Aphasia Essay

1200 words - 5 pages producing or understanding spoken or written language. This disorder does not affect general intellectual functioning; a person with aphasia can still carry out non-linguistic tasks. Aphasia can also occur with other speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which is also a result from brain damage. This disorder affects about one million people or 1 in 250 people in America. It is more common than Parkinson’s disease or cerebral

Traumatic Brain Injury: Evaluating The Effects Of Computer Based Cognitive Rehabilitation On Memory And Functional Communication

3039 words - 12 pages the deficits. Global aphasia is characterized by a client’s inability to communicate via spoken and written language and their inability to understand spoken and written communication. Global aphasia is less common and, in some cases has been shown to improve as complications from other secondary conditions decrease (Demir, Görgülü, & Köseoglu, 2006). Common oral-motor complications include apraxia and dysarthria. Apraxic clients are unable to

Quality And Safety Education For Nurses

996 words - 4 pages unusual’ a challenge for nurses in health-promoting conversations with families. Nursing Inquiry15: 106–115. Bowen, A., Hesketh, A., Patchick, E., Young, A., Davies, L., Vail, A., ... & Tyrrell, P. (2012). Effectiveness of enhanced communication therapy in the first four months after stroke for aphasia and dysarthria: a randomized controlled trial. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 345. Casey, A., & Wallis, A. (2011). Effective communication

The Importance Of Effective Communication In Health Care

967 words - 4 pages development. Volume 27, Number 3, pp 128-135. Benzein, E. G., Hagberg, M,. Saveman, B.I. (2008) ‘Being appropriately unusual’ a challenge for nurses in health-promoting conversations with families. Nursing Inquiry15: 106–115. Bowen, A., Hesketh, A., Patchick, E., Young, A., Davies, L., Vail, A., ... & Tyrrell, P. (2012). Effectiveness of enhanced communication therapy in the first four months after stroke for aphasia and