The following paper discusses learning disorders, specifically, dyslexia, that are present within school age children between the ages of seven and twelve. During this age, most average children have the ability to read, write, spell, think, listen and do mathematical problems with minimal difficulties (Silver, 1993, p.109). On the other hand, children with learning disorders, specifically dyslexia, struggle to grasp these concepts because they have visual perception problems.
When a child lacks visual perception skills, the child is really lacking the ability to organize or position the way something is seen. Furthermore, the child may confuse shapes, order of letters, and may not be able to focus on a specific object for a long period of time. For example, a child experiencing these difficulties may confuse the shape of a triangle for a square or see the word "bat" and read the letters backward which results in them actually seeing "tab." Finally, as many as fifteen to thirty percent of children within the United States undergo this problem and are said to have a reading disorder, caused by and known as dyslexia.
Many studies have been conducted to find out more about this disorder; however, they all seem to suggest that dyslexia runs throughout families and is passed on to many children genetically. Dr. Larry Cardon, a statistical geneticist, found evidence that "a gene for dyslexia sits on chromosome number six, which is one of the twenty-three chromosomes," (Cardon, 1994, p.271). Secondly, another expert finding was presented by Dr. Glen Rosen, a Harvard neuroscientist, as he explained that nerve cells within the left hemisphere of the brain tend to appear smaller than in the right hemisphere. Dr. Rosen believed this difference in size of nerve cells could possibly be enough to "throw off the timing of the brain and disrupt its crucial word processing skills," (Alexander & Gorman, 1994, p.61). Following this, Dr. Albert Balaburda, a neurologist from Harvard, showed that the brain of dyslexic people are "bombarded with tiny lesions and out-of-place cells which explains that the core of the problem may live in the machinery that controls prenatal development," (Nash, 1996, p.62). In conclusion, even though all of these findings pose somewhat different views, they all have a biological and genetic cause for dyslexia in common.
Dr. E. Boder (1973) a neurologist and researcher of dyslexia broke down the disorder into three different subtypes, in order to establish a technique to teach children with different degrees of dyslexia (Masutto & Bravar, 1994, p.520). The first subtype is known as dysphonetic dyslexia. When these children read, they tend to insert or delete letters and syllables. Following this is dysedetic...