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Early Childhood Psychosocial Development Essay

1599 words - 6 pages

Introduction
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of changes that occur in human throughout the life span. The development starts from infant until old age. Childhood is a time of tremendous change, but people also continue to grow slowly and develop during adulthood. It is a continuous process with a predictable sequence. These developmental changes may be influenced by genetic factor, environment factor and maturation factor.
There are three types of human development changes: physical development, cognitive development and psychosocial development. Our group member’s choice is psychosocial development in early childhood. Early childhood is the children that range at the aged 3 to 5 years. Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is one of the best known theories of personality in psychology. Erik Erikson reinterpreted Freud’s psychosexual theory by incorporating the social aspect. One of the main elements of Erikson’s theory is the development of ego identity. He came up with eight stages, each of which has two crises (a positive and a negative). In each stage, he believed human experience a conflict.
According to Erik Erikson’s eight life-span stages, the third stage is initiative versus guilt in early childhood. It means that early childhood has abilities to assert their power and control over the world and have initiative through directing play and communication with other children. Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, doubt and lack of initiative. When an ideal balance of individual initiative and a willingness to work with others is achieved, the ego quality known as purpose emerge.

Discussion
Erik Erikson is the one that suggest about psychosocial stages. He believed that childhood is very important in personality development. He accepted Freud’s psychosexual theories including id, ego and superego. However, Erikson rejected Freud’s attempt to describe personality on the basis of sexuality. Erikson extends on Freudian thought by focusing on characteristic of ego and expanding the notion of the stages of personality development to include the entire lifespan. He came up with a new theory called psychosocial theory. This theory is focusing on personality development. He proposes a life-span model of human development which includes eight successive psychosocial stages. Each stage associate with conflict or crisis that the individual must encounter and successfully resolve (Justin T.Sokol, 2009). For example, the first stage: trust vs. mistrust. The first stage of Erikson’s theory occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life. In this stage, the infant is uncertain about the world. They start to questioning many thing like is that guys a good guys? They develop mistrust which is good because they will be more aware of the environment. That’s why when a children...

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