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Early Detection Of Cardiac Dysfunction By Strain And Strain Rate Imaging In Children And Young Adults With Marfan’s Syndrome

1832 words - 8 pages

Methods (Background)
One part of the Marfan’s syndrome that has been researched was the cardiac dysfunction in younger children and young adults. There were a few methods that have been used to determine how to prevent Marfan’s syndrome in children and young adults. There is Conventional Echocardiography, Radiography Strain Rate Imaging, and Statistical analysis. In March 2010 to April 2011, Marfan’s syndrome’s patients attended the outpatient Pediatric Cardiology Clinic at Arkansas Children’s Hospital. This study focused mainly on people under 30 years of age. The patients in this experiment were all positive for Marfan’s Syndrome based on The Ghent criteria or a positive genetic test ...view middle of the document...

They used a shorting fraction of M-mode imaging. In M-mode (motion mode) ultrasound, pulses are emitted in quick succession of each time; either an A-mode or B-mode image is taken. A-mode (amplitude mode) is the simplest type of ultrasound. A single transducer scans a line through the body with the echoes plotted on screen as a function of depth. Therapeutic ultrasound is aimed at a specific tumor or calculus. It is also A-mode, which allows a pinpoint to accurately focus on the destructive wave energy. In B-mode or 2D mode ultrasound, a linear array of transducers simultaneously scans a plane through the body that can be viewed as a two-dimensional image on screen. They were recording a video in the ultrasound. They had to determine the velocity of the organ structures specifically when the organ boundaries that produce reflections move relative to the probe. There were three of the same cardiac cycles that were recorded with simultaneous electrocardiography recording. Biplanes left ventricular end-diastolic and end-systolic cavity were calculated by the Simpson rule which is a method for numerical integration, the numerical approximation of definite integrals in order to derive the ejection fraction.

2. Strain and Strain Rate Imaging
Strain is the fraction or percentage change in an object dimension in comparison to the object’s original dimension. Similarly, strain rate can be when the speed of deformation occurs. Parasternal, which is behind the sternum (breastbone), is short-axis views that are at the basal level (at the level of the mitral valve) and the mid ventricular level (at the level of the papillary muscles). Apical and parasternal views which are two- dimensional imaging were performed separately with the vivid 7 ultrasound system. When they narrowed the image sectors, it maximized the frame rate. It aligned the walls parallel to the ultrasound beam for apical images and included the ventricular walls that they needed. Imaging was the recording for the patients that were old enough to hold their breath. Doppler imaging is when a technician uses a handheld instrument which is a transducer. It is passed lightly over the skin above a blood vessel. Doppler imaging of the mitral and aortic values had determined systolic and diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle. The transducer sends and receives sound waves that are amplified through a microphone. The sound waves bounce off solid objects, including blood cells. The systolic phase is when the ventricles contract and pump blood into the arteries. One cardiac cycle is completed when the heart fills with blood and the blood is pumped out of the heart. In the diastole phase, the heart ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood.
Echo PAC is an Ultrasound review station acting as an image display in a DICOM network. It helped to obtain 2-dimensional strain and strain rate. A speckle is an echocardiographic imaging technique that analyzes the motion of tissues in the heart by...

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