Nepal is a developing nation. To put it more simply; development has been poured into Nepal. However, Nepal is still a poor country and on top of that it is subjected to many natural disasters. Floods, landslides, epidemics and fires cause considerable loss of life and property in Nepal every year. Earthquakes, on the other hand are not so frequent, but have the potential for causing the greatest damage.
Nepal is a Himalayan country which lies in a highly active tectonic zone, i.e. between Indian plate and Eurasian plate, susceptible to sever Earthquake hazards. Earthquakes are an unavoidable part of Nepal's future. Historical data evidence the occurrence of destructive great earthquakes in the past. Alleviation of earthquake risk can be made only with adequate assessment of seismic hazard which should be based on the evaluation of seismic tectonic and geological process prevailing in this part of the world. Based on the seismic record of the number of earthquakes that occurred since 1255 A.D., earthquakes of magnitude greater than 8 occurred on average once every 75 years. The last great earthquake of magnitude 8.3 occurred in 1934 A.D.
The amount of damaged is strongly influenced by the quality of soil. Kathmandu Valley is located above the site of a prehistoric lake which has been filled with soft sediments that make up the valley floor today. These soft sediments magnify the shaking during an earthquake. In addition, when shaken, the water saturated soil will change from a firm material to a semi-liquid material and loses its ability to support structures which exacerbates the risk. Kathmandu possesses all the constituents like never ending political instability, dense population, poorly constructed structures and lack of basic facilities like electricity and water; needed to result in one of the worst human disaster in the history of civilization. The one single-runway airport and all three access roads would likely be destroyed in a major quake, meaning the city could be stranded. If a similar earthquake to that of 1934 was to strike now, it would cause a greater loss of lives and properties.According to United Nation’s study, Nepal is placed top 11th in the ranking of earthquake-susceptible countries. The whole length of Nepal, from east to west, lies in an active shallow earthquake belt. Nepal is also placed in a zone that has the highest probability of risk and the greatest potential of major damage of buildings and infrastructure during an earthquake episode. Although Kathmandu is in the seismically active zone, awareness level of general population regarding seismic hazard is low in comparison to its severity. The building codes are rarely enforced in Nepal.
The awareness level of community people regarding the seismic hazard is low. People of the community are just aware to shaking movements of earthquake. Most of them cannot say the probable causes of earthquake. Although the people don't know the causes of earthquake, they are...