Echinococcosis Or Hydatid Cyst Essay

1292 words - 5 pages

Echinococcosis or Hydatid cyst is a parasitic disease caused by an infection of tiny tapeworms (Image 1). This infection can be naturally transmitted between humans and other animals. It can be transmitted by digesting feces, contaminated meat or other products. It is considered one of the most significant groups of communicable diseases. There are three different types of echinococcosis which can affect both human and animals; but only two are most commonly seen in humans and animals. The two are cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis. In this essay I am going to explain more about the Echinococcus in general, the two different types of echinococcosis, the symptoms they create, and how they each affect the body differently.
In order for you to understand how Echinococcus works. You have to understand how it is transmitted into your system and begins infecting you. Echinococcus goes through several different steps on how it is developed and then transmitted to other hosts. The adult echinococcus tapeworm is about 5 mm long and lives in the small intestines of dogs and another canine species such as coyotes, wolves and foxes. The stage where a cyst begins usually occurs in intermediate hosts; typically sheep’s but they can also affect cattle’s, horses, camels, pigs and goats and many others. Tapeworm eggs are passed by the feces of infected dogs and then are digested by grazing sheep’s. These eggs then hatch into the embryos within the intestines, and then penetrate the intestines to be carried by the blood to major organs such as the liver and lungs. This larval stage of the parasite is called an oncosphere. The larval stage spreads by the bloodstream to target organs and other parts of the body, such as liver, lungs, brain and muscles. When they developed by expansion into a Hydatid or echinococcal cyst also called a metacestode. Within the larval echinococcal cysts, protosolices (multiple tiny tapeworm heads) are produce by asexual reproduction. To finalize the cycle, these are then ingested by dogs feeding on the infected intermediate host, and in about 6 weeks later, adult egg-producing tapeworms begin to develop in the dog’s intestines (Image 2) (Draper, 2014).
Echinococcal cyst (E. granulosus), is a fully developed metacestode, it is usually unilocular, subspherical in shape; fluid filled and has the least complex structure. The development of the cyst is slow in variable and dependent on a number of factors; the strain of parasite, the species, and the strain of host, and the intensity of the infection. They can increase in diameter by 1 to 5 cm a year, whereas brood capsule formation may occur and varies from a few months to years; or it may not occur in humans or other abnormal hosts. The production of brood capsules and protoscoleces is not related to the size of the cyst but depends on the nature of the relationship between the host and parasite. A cyst that is developed from brood capsules and protoscoleces is referred to...

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