Environmental Toxicology Paper

1318 words - 5 pages

Environmental Toxicology PaperPhillip VolivaENV/410March 3, 2014Alicia Dillon HollowayEnvironmental Toxicology PaperI will first explain the difference between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Toxicants interact with living organisms in a series of five time-dependent processes. The study of these processes is called toxicokinetics. These processes are absorption, distribution storage, biotransformation and elimination. There are unique cellular effects within the organism when they come in contact with the toxicant. Toxicodynamics is an examination of the way these effects happen. There are many similarities as well as important differences between the toxicokinetics and pharmacokinetics of most substances. The same applies to pharmacodynamics and toxicodynamics (Olson, n.d.).The approach for conducting toxicokinetics studies that is recommended by most scholars generally involves three steps. Goehl (1997), "Step 1 is a preliminary study, which uses a minimum number of animals to estimate the range of blood/tissue concentrations, the required quantitation limit for the analytical method, and the optimal sampling times for the definitive toxicokinetic studies. Step 2 is the definitive study and generates blood and/or tissue concentration data for calculating the toxicokinetic parameters. Step 3 is the toxicokinetic study conducted in conjunction with the toxicology study to determine the internal dose and the effects of age and continuous exposure on kinetic parameters" (Toxicokinetics in the National Toxicology Program).There are four primary routes of exposure to chemical contaminants; injection, ingestion, topical and inhalation. Because of the chemical being directly introduced into the body, injection is the only method where the entire amount is absorbed regardless of how much is given. Chemicals may be injected intravenously directly into a vein or intramuscularly. The other methods of injection are subcutaneously, which is under the skin or intraperitoneally, directly into the membrane lining the organs of the stomach (Al-hamad, 2012).Ingestion is the route of exposure most often used for toxic chemicals. The cell membrane diffuses chemicals in the non-ionized form, making the level of ionization important in whether a chemical is absorbed or not. Al-hamad (2012), "Organic acids are in their non- ionized form in an acidic environment (such as the stomach), and they thus tend to diffuse across a membrane, whereas organic bases are non-ionized and thus diffuse across a membrane in a basic environment (such as in the intestine)" (Different route of exposure of toxicant). Because the small intestine is larger than the stomach, its contents are passed to the intestine before the chemicals are absorbed (Al-hamad, 2012).Topical exposure happens when the toxicant is absorbed through the skin. The absorption of the toxicant is directly proportional with the chemical's lipid solubility. The thickness of the layer, the condition, the dryness and...

Find Another Essay On Environmental Toxicology Paper

then who do we believe? Essay

1768 words - 7 pages more humane ways to obtain data.      To minimize the amount of animal testing, corporations must use alternatives when possible. The John Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health and its Department of Environmental Health Science have been trying to get corporations to replace in vivo for toxicology with in vitro toxicology. In vitro is the test- tube science of using cells, tissues and organs, while in vivo are live

Effects of BPA Exposure Essay

2420 words - 10 pages and foetus in the womb (Xiao et al., 2011). In this paper, I am going to talk about how the BPA is affecting the embryo development of organisms and see what different mechanisms of are existed within the BPA effects on embryonic development and how the birth defects take places. History of BPA: In 1891, BPA was first synthesized by Aleksander Dianin during his experiments when phenol with acetone was mixed in the presence of acid (Dianin, 1891

WHAT IS FOUND IN MY HOME?

1755 words - 7 pages . From the kitchen to the bedroom to the garage, there are chemicals everywhere you turn. Over a 17-year period, the Environmental Protection Agency learned that women who work in the home have a 54% higher death rate from cancer than women who work outside of the home (Latham). Even with statistics such as these, however, many people are still unaware of the toxins found in the home and how they affect themselves, as well as, loved ones and pets

Mercury: A toxic poison

4066 words - 16 pages mercury by anaerobic bacteria. Methyl mercury is of major toxicology significance. If it is taken up into the food chain by fish, it may eventually cycle through humans or it may diffuse into the atmosphere and return to the earth's crust or to bodies of water as methyl mercury in rainfall1. The Japanese Tragedy The steadily mounting environmental contamination by mercury was ignored until a tragic series of events occurred

Kardell Paper Co.:Integrating a Stakeholder-Centic Model into a decision-making framework.

3872 words - 15 pages IntroductionThe issues found within the Kardell Paper Co. (KPC) case can be regarded as a fairly indicative example of a real-life situation, and representative of an ethical decision a company must face in the midst of ordinary operations. Changing societal values demand that KPC look at stakeholder relationships and moral standards, rather than the more 'traditional' perspective of providing value solely to shareholders.By integrating a

Biodiesel – Fuel for the Future

2504 words - 10 pages warehouses. Diesel engines have been favored over gasoline engines or other sources of power because they are more versatile and cheaper to run. However, with these advantages come disadvantages; the effluent produced by the combustion of diesel fuel is one of the main contributors to worldwide environmental pollution problems. Diesel exhaust is a mixture of thousands of gases and particulate matter (PM), or soot. PM contains thousands of

An Ecosystem's Disturbance by a Pollutant

10152 words - 41 pages Great paper, an A+ paper! Great paper!Paul CordovaL. LehrDecember 11, 1995An Ecosystem's Disturbance by a PollutantFreedman defines a pollutant as 'the occurrence of toxic substances or energy in a larger quality then the ecological communities or particular species can tolerate without suffering measurable detriment' (Freeman, 562). Although the effects of a pollutant on an organism vary depending on the dose and duration (how long administered

The Effects of Increased Temperature on Fish Reproduction

2037 words - 8 pages Canal of a Nuclear Power Plant. F. Paul Richards, Richard M. Ibara Trans. Am. Fish. 1978 107(2), 288-220 Other Works: DNA Damage and Radiocesium in Channel Catfish from Chernobyl Derric w. Sugg, John W. Bickham, Janet A. Brooks, Michael D. Lomakin Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 1996 Vol. 15, No. 7, 1057-1063 Effects of Temperature on Mitochondrial Function in the Antarctic

Literature Review: Prediction of Henry’s Law Constant

3676 words - 15 pages Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), partial least squares regression, or support vector machine. ** Add in about collinearity, F-test (practical overview paper) ** Works Cited Burkhard, L. P., Armstrong, D. E. and Andren, A. W. (1985) Henry Law Constants for the Polychlorinated-Biphenyls. Environmental Science & Technology, 19(7), pp. 590-596. Carroll, J. J. (1991) What Is Henry's Law. Chemical Engineering Progress, (Sept), pp. 48-52

Key environmental issues of GM versus nanotechnology.

1976 words - 8 pages nanotechnology are indeed a revolution in issues on the world scientific agricultural stage and it is their ability to be regulated that will be examined within this report. The key environmental issues of both genetic modification and nanotechnology will be compared to assess if the lessons learnt from genetic modification can be used in steering nanotechnology towards a less controversial future.2003 was the year that Nanotechnology thrust itself into the

The Ignorance of Media and Public about Genetically Modified Food

2407 words - 10 pages direct result of an uninformed media representation. Therefore, my intention of this paper is not to demonize organic food, but rather to present the truth about genetic modification through presenting the true identity of what genetic modification is, its safety promoted through stringent regulation and science, and finally the inherent risks and benifits associated with it. By doing this I will show throughout the paper that the media, by failing

Similar Essays

Environmental Toxicology Paper

1318 words - 5 pages Environmental Toxicology PaperPhillip VolivaENV/410March 3, 2014Alicia Dillon HollowayEnvironmental Toxicology PaperI will first explain the difference between toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. Toxicants interact with living organisms in a series of five time-dependent processes. The study of these processes is called toxicokinetics. These processes are absorption, distribution storage, biotransformation and elimination. There are unique

Environmental Toxins Essay

1216 words - 5 pages &tid=63 Hilgenkamp, K. (2006). Environmental Toxins and Toxicology. In Environmental health: Ecological perspectives (pp. 89-90). Princeton, N.J: Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic. Welcome. (2010, December 22). Retrieved from http://www.agentorangecanada.com/ WHO | Dioxins and their effects on human health. (2010, May). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs225/en/

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (Edc’s) And The Environment

3336 words - 13 pages . Works Cited Brodkin MA, Madhoun H, Rameswaran M, Vatnick I (2007) Atrazine is an immune disruptor in adult northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 26, No. 1, 80–84 Colborn T, vom Saal FS, Soto AM (1993) Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives, vol.101, no.5, 378-384 Crews D, Gore AC, Hsu TS, Dangleben NL, Spinetta M

West Nile Virus: What Is It And How Did It Get Here?

2322 words - 9 pages AbstractMy intention for this paper is to address the origin of the West Nile virus; comparing the most recent human and equine case statistics in the United States. The comparison will primarily be based on articles found on the Internet, some from scientists and government agencies, and some from lay persons trying to make a difference. The information in this paper is not to change any person's opinion but to give the reader statistics and