China and Japan
From 1500 to 1800, China and Japan tried to politically and economically established their countries in very different ways. Japan fought war after war for a century before they changed their ways. China on the other hand slowly established a government and used education as a tool to be politically and economically strong. Japan would later do the same.
China was one of the most politically and economically strong countries during 1500 – 1800. The state was identified as family. It brought unity and integration. The political system was an expanded role of Confucianism. From 1500 – 1800, China was the most highly commercialized non-industrial society in the world. China had what is known as the perfected late imperial system. The two Dynasties that ruled China during this time period were Ming (1368 – 1644) and Ch’ing (1644 – 1911). They both had the same type of government, good familial and good educational system. The emperor was stronger than ever during Ming - Ch’ing. It made all-important and UN-important decisions. Below him were the Grand Secretaries. They made all decisions the Emperor did not want to make. The Ming and Ch’ing had an organization of offices, at the top was the military, censorate, and administrative branch, below them were six ministries. They ran a Confucianism political system. These were also Chinas last Dynasties.
During the ruling of Ming, population doubled from 60 million to 125 million. Food supply was on the same pace. They had their fare share of epidemics. The great plague of 1586 – 1589 and 1639 – 1644 killed 20% - 30% of the most populated areas. Ming re-populated open lands by re-settling villages and expanding water supply like the re-opening of the Grand Canal in 1415. Silk and cotton dominated the local markets. Silver was a dominate market in the mid 1600’s. It was imported from mines in Western Japan. Spanish Galleons brought Peruvian silver into China. This led to the opening of the private “Shensi Bank” branches to accommodate the transfer of funds. Rather than paying taxes in grain or labor, farmers would sell grain and cash crops and pay taxes in silver. Ming collapsed in 1644.
In the late 16th century, a Leader unified the Manchurian tribes, proclaimed a new Dynasty, and established a government. After the collapse of the Ming Dynasty, they took over and are know as the Ch’ing Dynasty or Manchu. They ran the same style of government as Ming. In the late 16th century, Ch’ing took over south China with the help of Ming’s generals that allied with Ch’ing after the collapse and moved the capital from Mukden to Peking. Manchu appointed two people, one Manchu, and one Chinese, to each key post in the central government. It was called Dyarchy. In 1683, Emperor K’ang Hsi took over Taiwan.
The Ming Ch’ing was known as the perfected late imperial system. They had a stronger emperor, better government finances and used Confucianism as an ideology. They had more academies to...