This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Edward Jenner And The Discovery Of Vaccines

1132 words - 5 pages

Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines

Edward Jenner (1749-1823) trained in London, under John Hunter, and
was an army surgeon for a period of time. After that, he spent his
whole career as a country doctor in his home county, Gloucestershire
(West of England). His research was based on careful case studies and
clinical observation more than a hundred years before scientists could
explain what viruses and diseases actually were. His innovative new
method was successful to such an extent that by 1840 the British
government had banned alternative preventive treatments against


His invention of vaccination against smallpox was the medical
breakthrough that saved the most lives, before antibiotics came into
mass use. Before Jenner's vaccine, smallpox was a killer disease; the
majority of its victims were infants and young children. In the
twentieth century alone it killed more than 300 million -
approximately three times the number of deaths from all of that
century's wars and battles combined.

The last reported case of smallpox occurred in Somalia. There, on
October 26, 1977, a youth named Ali Maow Maalin recovered from a rash
caused by smallpox. He was entitled the last case of natural smallpox
in the world. In 1980, thanks to Jenner's discovery, the World Health
Assembly officially declared "the world and its peoples" free from
endemic smallpox.

When Jenner began medical practice at Berkeley (in Gloucestershire) he
was asked a lot, to inoculate persons against smallpox. Inoculation
was not a common practice in the English countryside until around 1768
when Robert Sutton (of Debenham, Suffolk) improved it. Sutton required
the patient to rest and maintain a strict diet for two weeks before
inoculation. He inoculated by taking a very small quantity of fluid
from an unripe smallpox pustule, on the point of a lancet, and
inserting it between the outer and inner layers of the skin of the
upper arm without drawing blood. He did not use a bandage to cover the

Jenner had always been fascinated by the rural old wives' tale that
milkmaids could not get smallpox. He believed that there was a
connection between the fact that milkmaids only got a weak version of
smallpox (the non-life threatening cowpox) but did not get the strong
version, smallpox itself. A milkmaid who caught cowpox got blisters on
her hands and Jenner concluded that it must be the pus in the blisters
that somehow protected the milkmaids.

Jenner began to inoculate against smallpox using Sutton's method, but
he soon found some patients to be completely resistant to the disease.
Upon investigation, he found that these patients had previously had
cowpox. Jenner concluded that cowpox not only protected against
smallpox, but also could be transferred from one human being to

Find Another Essay On Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Vaccines

The Harmful Effects of Vaccines Essay

1637 words - 7 pages Andrew Lee Professor Molnar College Composition 162 10 April, 2014 The Harmful Effects of Vaccines Vaccines are becoming increasingly hazardous for many children and parents are not being informed about the safety of their children. Current reports are linking vaccines to serious life-threatening disorders such as asthma, autism, immune system dysfunction, and mental retardation (Williams). These recent revelations are causing an increasing

The Excavation and Discovery of Tutankhamun's Tomb

1046 words - 5 pages The excavation and discovery of Tutankhamun’s tomb was as a result of the efforts of the Archaeologist Howard Carter and his team. Carter’s discovery of the tomb came by finding steps to the burial near the entrance to the tomb Ramses VI. The subsequent excavated of the site by Carter and his team revealed the greatest ever treasure found from an Egyptian tomb and showed the existence of Tutankhamun. Carter’s methodology for the excavation was

The Discovery of Radioactivity and its Effects

1189 words - 5 pages During the 1800’s, the late 1800’s, scientist discovered radioactivity. The study of radio activity became a phenomenon amongst scientist during this time period. With the discovery of new elements polonium and radium by Marie and Pierre Curie, the use of radioactivity to probe the center of an atom, provided the instructions of a nuclear weapon that will kill innocent Japanese, leaving there face disfigured, and permanently changed. The

The Discovery and Development of Nuclear Technology

1441 words - 6 pages The Discovery and Development of Nuclear Technology Man has always been interested in how the world around him works. He wondered about the structure of matter,of which his world, as well as our world, is made up. Countless scientists have been pondering that same question ever since the beginning of time. In this paper you will read about just a few of the men and women that broke the ground for the nuclear technology of today

The Discovery and Impact of Agriculture

659 words - 3 pages The discovery of agriculture has led to many profound changes in society. From its origin during the Neolithic era, to its evolution throughout modern society, agriculture has formed and shaped human society to what it is today. Without agriculture, society would still be a hunting and gathering community. However, because of the uncovering of agriculture, early humans were able to grow crops and domesticate animals. Moreover, farming has

The Reactivity of Metals and Their Discovery

1791 words - 7 pages were to do the same with the other three metals, they would do the same, only it would be an exaggerated reaction. When you cut in half, a piece of Sodium or Potassium and it gets exposed to the air, it will immediately turn dull, because it becomes oxidized. Again, it would d the same with the other Group I metals.In conclusion, I think it is right to say that the dates of discovery of the metals relates to their reactivity because, as the metals

The Tragedy of Mickey and Edward

1268 words - 5 pages In the play Blood Brothers, Willy Russell hangs his story on the superstition that Mrs Lyons uses to trap Mrs Johnstone in silence: that superstition which the is, that should Mickey and Edward discover their brotherhood, they will both die. We see a huge contrast between Mrs Lyons and Mrs Johnstone. At the beginning of the play, the narrator describes the Mrs Johnstone, the mother, as “cruel”. As we continue with the text, we begin to

The Link between Vaccines and Allergies

2816 words - 12 pages system has had time to create the antibodies necessary, the imitation infection goes away and those antibodies are remembered by the immune system just in case the real pathogen is to be encountered. (U.S. Dept..) We do not get sick from vaccinations. Using cell strains and cell lines, researchers can grow human pathogens like viruses in a particular type of cell to attenuate them, or to weaken them. One way pathogens are altered for use in vaccines

Vaccines Are Not the Cause of Autism

804 words - 3 pages controlling the distribution of serious diseases like polio, pertussis, diphtheria, and smallpox. Smallpox is not essential in children nowadays for the reason that it is currently considered eradicated in the United States. However, the American government does hold claim to possessing an adequate amount of the vaccine in case of a smallpox epidemic (Masci, 2003). The apprehension for vaccines along with the fear of consequences are

Discovery of the Self

1836 words - 7 pages self, how is the self discovered/encountered, what makes the discovery of the self challenging, what aspects of the self were for me the most challenging, and what are the obstacles to the discovery of the self? These six questions will describe the nature of my encounter with the various components of the phenomenon addressed in the text known as "The Self". To begin the analysis of the self, one first has to define what is the self, and it's

The Discovery Of Economy

3532 words - 14 pages and barriers will have to be braved by the people as for the flow of people, goods and services from one state to the other. Bureaucratic interference will always remain whenever there is an exchange of business, trade or travel between any two nations from among the fifty. On the contrary if the fifty are again merged into a union of the USA, then there is no need for working out on policies, sovereignty, constitutional amendments, economy

Similar Essays

The Discovery Of Vaccines Prevented The Spread Of Infectious Diseases

1584 words - 6 pages The discovery of vaccines prevented the spread of infectious diseases around the world. Vaccines control the spread of diseases such as measles, tuberculosis, smallpox, and the flu. In addition, vaccines increase the overall health of not only individuals, but of populations. Although these benefits prove effective on the world wide scale, the requirement of vaccinations of children to enter the public school system remains a current public

The Benefits Of Prolonging And Separating Vaccines

2233 words - 9 pages Parents today have many concerns for the well being of their child. One big apprehension is what vaccines are being introduced into their infant’s small bodies and the many adverse reactions they cause. In our current generation, infants are injected with up to 31 vaccines just in their first year of life (CDC, 2015). Life threatening diseases are prevented with such vaccines, but parents are often left to wonder, how many of these

Vaccines And The Prophylactic Use Of Antipyretics

3047 words - 12 pages Background Many parents express concern and worry over their child developing fever after receiving vaccines. Because of this, parents often choose to medicate their child with antipyretics in order to prevent this unpleasant side effect. According to Pedulla (2012), it was previously common practice by pediatric health care provides to recommend using an antipyretic prior to the administration of immunizations in order to reduce fever and

The History Of Vaccines Essay

2434 words - 10 pages About Your Immune System One Felt Defenseless To Answer...Until Now. Brookfield, Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000. Print. "Does Polio Still Exist? Is It Curable?" WHO. World Health Organization, Mar. 2014. Web. 19 May 2014. . "Edward Jenner." BBC News. BBC, 2014. Web. 19 May 2014. . "Health Affairs." The History Of Vaccines And Immunization: Familiar Patterns, New Challenges. May 2005. Web. 18 May 2014. . "The History of Malaria, an