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Effect Of Bitter Melon On Obesity And Related Complications In Metabolic Syndrome

1789 words - 8 pages

The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and became one of the world’s most serious public health problems. It has been estimated that 58% of world population will be obese by 2030 1. Global survey data also indicate that the prevalence of both male and female overweight and obesity varies by region and has rapidly increased in recent years 2,3. Elements that cause obesity involve metabolism, genetics, diet, physical activity, as well as the socio-cultural surroundings that characterizes the modern day living4. Recent evidences suggest that high fat diet which is also characteristics of cafeteria type diet as well as sedentary life style are two causative factors for increased trends of obese people among the nations5. However, genetic factors contribute the variation of adiposity in approximately 40–70% of a population6. These genetic factors thus explain the failure of exercise and dietary regime to bring about long-term weight loss in some individuals. Obesity can be defined as increased energy intake than energy expenditure which ultimately results fat deposition and weight gain. According to guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO), overweight in adults is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 to 29.9, and obesity is defined as a BMI of 30.0 or higher 7. High body fat also increases the risk of several diseases such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension, which leads to arteriosclerotic disease and metabolic syndrome 8. Consequently, obesity and related cardiovascular complications are increasing alarmingly both in developed and developing countries. Adipocyte dysfunction and inflammation contribute the various complications associated with obesity. Recently, adipose tissues are considered as an endocrine organ which secretes numerous fat and glucose regulating hormones, adikines and cytokines like adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) 9,10. Increased concentration and expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are evident in adipocyte dysfunction and insulin resistance in obesity and metabolic syndrome11. Furthermore, inflammatory cells such as macrophages infiltration are also increased in adipose tissues and cause adipocyte dysfunction 12. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress have also been shown to be responsible for developing metabolic disturbances, such as insulin resistance and activation of immune response in liver, adipose tissue and in muscle13-15. In this regard, activation of inflammatory pathways in hepatocytes is sufficient to cause both local as well as systemic insulin resistance16,17.
In the last decade, much attention has been focused on several molecular drug targets with the potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders. Thus, nuclear receptors and their regulators have attracted much attention due to their regulatory role in both glucose homeostasis and lipogenesis18. Peroxisome...


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