1 Literature Review
The review presented in this chapter outlines the integration of electric vehicles with the electricity generated from wind energy to improve jurisdictions energy security and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The first section discusses wind as a renewable energy source and its share in future global energy mix to meet the increased electricity demand while still reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The second section explains the fundamentals of different types of electric vehicles and describes the research related to the impact of electrification of vehicles in transportation sector. The final section summarizes the findings presented in existing literature related to the potential environmental impact of the electric vehicles using the regional wind generated electricity to address greenhouse gas emissions and to improve energy security.
1.1 Renewable Energy
In the recent years, the global demand for energy is rapidly growing with increasing human population, urbanization and modernization (Asif & Muneer, 2008). According to the IEA’s World Energy Outlook (WEO), the global primary energy demand is projected to increase by 35 percent from 2008 to 2035 (IEA, 2011). Today, fossil fuels – notably oil, gas and coal accounts for majority share of primary energy supply and it will remain to be dominant energy sources to meet the global energy demand in 2035. However, the share of fossil fuels sources in global primary energy mix will decline to 74 % in 2035 compared over 81% in 2008 (IEA, 2011). Furthermore, the share of renewables to energy growth is likely to be increased from 5% (1990-2010) to 18% (2010-2030) (BP, 2011).
Renewable energy sources include solar, wind, biomass, hydro, geothermal and wave and tidal energy. It is a clean energy source and available in abundant, inexhaustible and environmental friendly compared to the conventional fossil energy sources. According to Energy Information Administration (EIA), renewable energy can be defined as energy resources that are naturally replenished in a relatively short period of time (EIA, 2011). In the recent past years, renewable energy – mainly wind is considered as the solution to the growing global energy challenges while still reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Kessides, 2011) .
1.1.1 Wind Energy
Our Earth is unevenly heated by sun; it’s mainly due to the irregularities of the earth’s surface (i.e. land and water). As soon as the sun rays reaches earth, it converts the light into heat energy (solar energy). The region’s near the equator receives more of the sun energy (i.e., solar energy) than the North and South poles. During the day time, the air above land mass gets warm up quickly compared over the air above the water surface. This heat on the earth’s surface warms the air in the atmosphere. The uneven heating of atmosphere by sun and the rotation of earth cause the movement of air which is called as “Wind” (WindEnergyEIS, n.d.).
Today, wind energy has...