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Effect Of Music Therapy On Schizophrenia

2788 words - 12 pages

Effect of Music Therapy For PeopleWith Schizophrenia's Acclimation to New Social EnvironmentsUniversity of DenverSchizophrenia is a psychotic disorder that affects multiple psychological processes that include: hallucinations, process of thought, delusions, emotion, behavior, concentration, and judgment. These psychological and behavioral processes constitute a variety of impairments in social and occupational functioning (Anonymous, 1997). Wing and Brown (1970) suggest that these psychological and behavioral processes predispose people with schizophrenia to social withdrawal, which allows the patient to have a low stimulation environment that can lead to further deterioration of the ...view middle of the document...

There were also sessions for music appreciation, stories, games, and differentiation between distinct rhythms and melodies. Another form of music therapy is co-improvisational, where the music therapist accompanies an individual or group of participants on their designated musical instrument (Talwar, Crawford, Maratos, Nur, McDermott, & Procter, 2006). However, Pavlicevic, Trevarthern, and Duncan (1994) found a problem when they had participants play one musical instrument concurrently versus when they had participants take turns on different instruments. Participants that played concurrently were forced to pay attention to more than one melody producing an excess of information. Pavlicevic et al. (1994) suggested, that schizophrenics benefit from restricted options in music therapy.Wen-Ying et al. (1998) studied the effects of music therapy in reducing the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Patients received three months of music therapy. They found participants had increased self-perception, cognitive functioning, emotional expression, and a reduction in the negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia.Wen-Ying et al. (1998) noted that melodies in music and language both have changes in pitch. Therefore, patients with a speech deficit integrated music as an environmental stimulus to increase their aptitude in thought association. Additionally, engagement in music games, improvisation, and stories inhibits social withdrawal and loneliness. Specifically, music games increased cognitive functioning, self-awareness, and self esteem. Wen-Ying et al. concluded that music therapy is an effective form of therapy for people with schizophrenia in reducing the negative symptoms of the disorder and increasing the social abilities of this population.Ulrich, Houtmans, and Gold (2007) found similar results as Wen-Ying et al. (1998). Ulrich et al. studied group music therapy, with the specific use of percussion instruments. Music therapy increased the psychosocial orientation and behavior of the patients with schizophrenia. The patients felt their contact with other people was more positive, flexible, affective, and they received more respect. There was no significant effect in the decrease of negative symptoms however, there was a trend showing that the experimental groups decrease in negative symptoms was higher than that of the control group. Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are primarily characteristics of DSM-IV schizophrenics. A subgroup was created for DSM-IV schizophrenics in the experimental and control group. Upon further analysis negative symptoms of schizophrenia were reduced for DSM-IV schizophrenics.Hayashi et al. (2002) examined the subscales of ward activity and ward adjustment for participants with schizophrenia that underwent music therapy. The subscale of ward activity was composed of a decrease of bed liking behavior, activity in general, leisure activity, social activity, and distinction of facial expressions. The subscale of...

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