Machining is the most important part of the the manufacturing process. The turning is one of the most commonly employed basic operations in the experimental work of metal cutting. The work material is held in the chuck of a lathe and is rotated. The tool is held rigidly in a tool post and moved at a constant rate along the axis of the feed bar, cutting away a layer of metal to form a desired profile. The components of cutting force acting on the tool are an important aspect of machining. Basic information oncutting force must be known in order to understand the relationship among various cutting force components. Many force measurement devices like dynamometers have been developed which are capable of measuring tool forces with increasing accuracy.
Avila and Abrao (2001) studied the effect of machining of hardened AISI 4340 steel. The work-piece material was heat treated to an average hardness of 49 HRC. Mixed alumina tools were used as cutting tool. The experimental tests were carried out with varying cutting speed ranging from 50 to 100m/min with a constant feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev. and a constant depth of cut of 2mm in rough turning. For finishing, the cutting speed values range from 200 to 400 m/min for a constant feed rate and depth
of cut of 0.05 mm/rev and 0.5 mm respectively. The different cutting fluids used were; emulsified without mineral oil, synthetic and emulsified containing mineral oil. The fluids were pumped at a rate of 75l/min. the experimentation concluded that the cutting fluid (emulsifiedwithout mineral oil) resulted in longer tool life compared to dry cutting. At high cutting speeds, the cutting fluid was responsible for reducing the scatter in the surface roughness values and also for the chip control.
Diniz and Oliveira (2004) optimized the use of dry cutting in rough turning steel operations. Several experiments were carried out varying parameters such as cutting speed, feed, depth of cut and tool material in rough turning of ABNT 1045 steel in dry and wet cutting. The material used had an average hardness of 97 HRB. The work-piece diameter varied from 60 to 100mm for the experimental work. The cutting fluid used was synthetic oil with 6% concentration the water having a flow rate of 4.3 l/min. Based on the work it could be said that dry turning could not be used for high values of depth of cut in order to obtain long tool life. The cause of wear on flank face was due to abrasion and adhesion, whereas the wear on the rake face was due to diffusion, abrasion and attrition.
Salgam et al. (2005) studied the effect of tool geometry and cutting speed on main cutting force and tool tip temperature. In this paper, the influence of rake angle and entering angle in tool geometry and cutting speed on cutting force components and the tool tip temperature generation during the turning process were evaluated. The data used for the investigation derived from experiments...